EUROROYALS - THE FRANCO-ROMAN CONNECTION
PATHWAY OF RULER AS SUN KING AND SELF-CHRONICLER:
Storyline: The narcissistic nationalist comes to see himself as the personification of the country he grows to reflect, after earlier establishing himself as the quintessential public man of the Piscean Age - soldier, scholar, expositer and statesman.
Charles de Gaulle (1890-1970) - French general, writer and statesman. Outer: 2nd of 5 children of a high school teacher of philosophy and literature, with three brothers and a sister. His father ruled the home with a stern hand, giving him his later authoritarian persona. Had an upper-middle-class, Roman Catholic, Parisian upbringing via a family that had produced writers, clerks and his/storians. Felt he was marked for greatness from childhood on, and knew that some day he would be called on to save France, both from its internal, as well as its external enemies. Also felt that France had an exceptional mission in the world. 6’5”, with a large nose and a small forehead. Spent a year at College Stanislaus, then did military service, before completing his education at the Military Academy of St. Cyr, where he was an honor student with his choice of regiment, and was known as the “Great Asparagus,” for his unique physiognomy. Began his military career in 1913 as a 2nd lieutenant in the infantry. Served in WW I, and was wounded 3 times, as well as decorated for bravery, then spent almost 3 years as a prisoner of war, making 5 unsuccessful attempts to escape. Married in 1921 to Yvonne Vendroux, a very domestic mate, 3 children from the union, including one son who became an admiral, and one daughter who suffered from Down Syndrome, and died at the age of 20. Extremely close to the latter, he was ultimately buried beside her. Served in various posts, and wrote extensively on military matters between the world wars, seeing the potential threat of Germany and the inadequacy of France’s defense, while Henri Petain served as his original mentor. A clear, lucid writer, as well as an effective teacher at the Ecole Superiereurede Guerre, with an independence of mind disturbed his superiors. Commanded a tank brigade at the outset of WW II and rose to temporary brigadier general, the youngest of that rank in the army. Disobeyed the order to surrender when France fell in 1940 and went into exile in England, while sentenced to death by the French military court. Knew that Germany would lose the war and became a leader of the Free French Forces, despite being a relative unknown with no following whatsoever. Continued throughout WW II to fight for French interests, much to the consternation of other Allied leaders, who despised him. Returned to France in 1944, and headed 2 provisional governments before abruptly resigning in 1946, when he felt the Fourth Republic was no different from the Third in its constitutional make-up, then spent 12 years in governmental opposition, campaigning against the constitution, the Communists and the political status quo, while creating a mass movement, Gaullist, that became a quasi-party in 1951, although he disbanded it 4 years later. Elected president of the 5th French Republic in 1958, after an insurrection in Algiers threatened civil war in France, while knowing he would only be accepted as leader in a time of crisis. Served twice in that post, viewing the world solely from a French perspective and alienating his national allies in the process, while also seeing his leadership in terms of totally dominating his elected parliament, rather than compromising with it, before resigning in 1969. Conservative and controversial, he uncompromisingly pursued his own agenda of restoring France to international greatness when realities dictated otherwise. Died of a heart attack after a brief retirement. Survived a modern record of 31 known assassination attempts on him, most of which were instituted by military figures. Inner: Egotistical, prideful, awkward and aloof, as well as shy, accepting isolation as the price he paid for his assumed greatness. Totally self-assured, with a complete identification with France, down to his name. Deep sense of his/story, with a stirring command of language, and a highly dramatic sense of self. Far more the actor than the general, using language as his primary weapon where force failed. Je-suis-L’Etat lifetime of acting out his own sense of grand destiny. Laurent Saint-Cyr (Laurent Gouvion, Marquis de Saint-Cyr) (1764-1830) - French marshal. Outer: Father was a tanner. Wanted to be an artist and studied art in Paris when the French revolutionary war broke out. Volunteered in his late 20s, then shot up through the ranks, making captain before being appointed to the regimental ranks his first year. By the end of 3 years he was a general of division, and had proved his worth on the battlefield. After continually distinguishing himself, he was made a councilor of state by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799. After a further command, and an ambassadorship to Spain, he resumed his impressive fighting career, rising to the rank of count in 1808. Although successful in Spain, his tactics were not to Napoleon’s liking and he was relieved of duty there in 1809, much to his resentment, and he left before his replacement arrived. In disgrace, he was exiled to his estates, although 2 years later, he was once again made councilor of state, and the following year, he was given command of a corps for the proposed invasion of Russia. Although wounded, his heroics saved his first battle, and his disgrace was erased by Napoleon presenting him with a marshal’s baton. Wounded again, he was forced to relinquish his command due to injury. Joined battle in Germany the following year, but typhus temporarily ended his active military career. Made Governor of Dresden, but was besieged and finally forced to surrender. Taken to Bohemia as a prisoner, but was repatriated less than a year later, and made a peer of France. With the final fall of Napoleon in 1815, he was given numerous posts and positions, both ministerial and martial, winding up his career as Minister of War, where he effected many reforms. Retired and wrote an account of his Rhine campaigns as well as his memoirs. Inner: Extremely vain and protective of his reputation. Diffident, reserved, superior, removed. Courageous martial spirit, with an excellent sense of tactics and analysis. His memoirs proved lively and informative reading, showing him to be excellent communicator on paper. Crypto-kingly lifetime of maintaining royal perspective despite ordinary birth, and despite noted accomplishments, little integrated with those less majestic than he. Louis XIV (1638-1715) - French king. Known as “the Sun King.” Outer: Of the Bourbon line. Son of Louis XIII (Michael Bay), mother was Anne of Austria (Emma Stone), daughter of the king of Spain. Born with two teeth, and had a largely neglected childhood. Ascended the throne at the age of 5, with his Hapsburg mother acting as regent, during which time he saw two revolts by the nobles, called the Fronde, which would later color his relations with them, and make him aggressively curb their power, while distrusting any and all who threatened his absolute hold over the country. At 17, for political reasons, he married Marie Therese, his double first cousin, a nondescript woman, who was daughter of the king of Spain. Despite a reputedly small penis, he kept it active with a slew of mistresses, although dutifully spent almost every night with his queen. The union produced 6 nondescript, unhealthy children, only one of whom survived infancy, in a family where only he truly shown, which was probably his hidden intent. His wife’s death in 1683, it was said, was the only trouble she ever gave him. Dominated by his ministers for the first 20 years of his kingship, then with the death of Cardinal Jules Mazarin (Francois Mitterand) in 1661, he personally took over the reins of his reign, contra to previous practice. Fairly dissolute with many mistresses, and many children, all of whom he legitimized, while maintaining his virility into old age. Commonsensical, harsh-hearted, with a sense of his own greatness, as well as his country’s, so that the ideal of absolute monarchy reached its apex under his 72 year reign. At his height in the 1680s, his court was the envy of Europe, with everyone trying to emulate him. Centralized the authority of the king, at the expense of both the nobles and the Church, while limiting the authority of the pope in France, and at the same time squelching all other religious practices, save for Roman Catholicism, which would raise the hackles of his Protestant enemies, and insure continued wars upon the European continent. Disempowered his nobility by requiring them to spend part of the year at court, so as to be under his close watch. Elevated both commoners and the newer nobility to positions of power, and made the older aristocracy mere courtiers, thus reducing their influence. As a supporter of arts and artists he had a shining court, building a magnificent palace at Versailles that would become the emblem of monarchical monomania, and which all of his contemporary European regents strove to imitate. Officially moved there in 1682. The 2nd half of his reign was far less brilliant than the first, thanks to his exhausting his country with endless wars, heavy-handed religious policies and a cult of his own personality. In 1684, he contracted a secret morganatic marriage to Francoise de Maintenon (Simone de Beauvoir), who acted as his political adviser, and gave him eight more heirs. Although never called the queen, she was treated as such and influenced him strongly, particularly since he began fearing for his soul and his place in heaven as he aged because of his adulteries, per his mother’s earlier fear-inducing warnings about “crimes committed against God.” Experienced a surfeit of demises in his family at the end. After a robust life, he became gouty and constipated, with a prostate tumor, and died of gangrene, after an agonized week of lying abed and finally slipping into a coma. Little mourning accompanied his leave-taking, with only a handful of courtiers attending his funeral, and the public-at-large largely indifferent to his passing. Succeeded by his great-grandson, Louis XV (Mikhail Gorbachev), following the longest reign in French his/story. Inner: Had average intelligence, but totally identified with rule. Courageous, megalomaniacal, but more concerned with the greatness of the state than its people, setting France up for revolution at century’s end. Dignified, gracious and excessively polite, with an innate sense of grandiose taste and culture. Terrified everyone with his mere glance, reducng them to abject humility, through his practiced stare and constant judgment on any and all potential social infringements. Said to have only gotten angry twice in his adult life. It’s-good-to-be-king lifetime of giving play to his enormous ego, and bringing a long age of regal regency to its pinnacle, so that it could begin its precipitous decline into the egalitarian depths of democracy. Maximilian I (1459-1519) - Holy Roman Emperor. Outer: Eldest son of HRE Friedrich III (Houston Chamberlain), mother was a Portuguese princess. Had an uneasy relationship with his father, who mistrusted him. Passionately fond of jousting, powerfully built, barrel-chested and relatively tall. At 16, he married Mary, the daughter of the French Burgundian duke, Charles the Bold (Bob Geldof), and through the union, considerably expanded his domains both in France and the Netherlands. 3 surviving children from union, including Felipe I (Jerome Bonaparte) of Castile. Successfully able to defend his domains. Following the death of his wife Mary of Burgundy (Peaches Geldof) in 1482, he was forced to allow the States General of the Netherlands to serve as regent for his son, although he reclaimed the regency in 1485, after defeating them in battle. Involved in marriage intrigues with the royal house of France with his daughter, although continued to do battle with the French, and in 1490, married Anne (Jessica Mitford) the duchess of Brittany, but had his daughter sent back to him by the king, Charles VIII (Hermann Goering), who, in turn, married Anne himself. By 1490, he had regained control of his family’s traditional spheres, through his martial artistry, and he succeeded his father at the age of 34, although unlike him, was never crowned in Rome, a bitter disappointment to him. Went on to sacrifice the empire’s needs to his own ambitions, and was continually involved in wars of expansion and balance of power. In 1494, he married the daughter of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (Spiro Agnew), and over the next several years, he threaded 2 of his children into the Spanish royal house, assuring him of succession there. Because of his martial expansionism, he was chronically short of money, and was forced to borrow heavily from the Fugger family. Offered the papacy by a schismatic Church Council, but turned it down. A patron of science and the arts, he kept a stable of writers to glorify his reign, and also dictated and wrote a 3 volume hagiography, taking advantage of the new printing technology to insure his immortalization in his/story. Enhanced his family through the dynastic marriages of his children and grandchildren, enabling him to leave a huge territorial estate. His reforms, in which he reorganized and restructured his empire, however, fell victim to his dynastic ambitions, leaving his empire ill-prepared for the upcoming Reformation. Inner: Restless, hugely aggressive, with an inclination towards structure and order, although always in a hurry and impatient. Flamboyant, extroverted and addicted to chivalric display. Dubbed “the last of the knights.” Harbored ambitions of a Charlemagne-like empire, and left huge holdings to his grandson, Charles V (Napoleon), an incarnation of the former. Master of propaganda and self-promotion. His ambition and appetites exceeded his realities, although his accomplishments were impressive enough, despite his financial failings. Almost to the max lifetime of actualizing some of his personal vision, without falling victim to his inherent grandiosity, thanks to his innate grandiose station. Louis I, Duke of Anjou-Maine (1339-1384) - French ruler and soldier. Outer: Of royal birth. Father was Jean II (Bernard Baruch), mother was the daughter of the king of Bohemia. Brother of Charles V (Raymond Aron), as well as Philippe II of Burgundy (Darryl F. Zanuck). Given the county of Maine by his father, and in 1360, he had the hereditary duchy of Anjou created for him. Fought valiantly against the English, then was sent to England as a hostage to ensure a ransom be paid, but escaped in 1363, forcing his father to make good on the arrangement, and in the process of replacing him, the latter died. When his brother succeeded to the throne the following year, he continued to war against the English, spending many years in battle, and showing no mercy to those areas with English sympathizers. Married Marie of Brittany around 1375, the daughter of French nobility. Became regent on his brother’s death in 1380, but showed a far greater interest in his own realm and personal ambition than the larger kingdom. Supported the anti-pope in Avignon, who promised him he would create his own realm in central Italy. Adopted as heir by the queen of Sicily, but a rival had her murdered before he could aid her. Crowned king of Sicily and Jerusalem, anyway in Avignon in 1382, which was then tied to his inheritance. Caught a chill, which developed into pneumonia, and the day after writing his will he died, before he could defend his new kingdom. Inner: Martial lifetime of placing personal ambition over all other concerns, costing him his kingly father, as well as his own life, in his ongoing dance with the grandiosity of personal power. Theodoric the Great (c454-526) - Ostrogothic king of Italy. Known as ‘the Great.’ Outer: Illegitimate son of an Ostrogothic chieftain. As an 8 year old, he was sent as a hostage to the eastern Roman empire capital of Constantinople, where he received an education in Roman ways, although he was said to be illiterate, which may have been an exaggeration on his limited skills of written expression. For the first 30 years of his life, his tribe sought new lands in which to settle, after having been driven from their previous home. Succeeded his father at the age of 17 and led his people into Lower Moesia in the Balkans. Showed himself to be a skilled commander, and was given the titles of patrician and Master of Soldiers by the indolent Roman emperor Zeno (John Fitzgerald), who later appointed him consul in 484 and adopted him as his own son. Alternately an ally and enemy of Zeno, he also could not find a permanent peaceful refuge for his people. After asking the emperor to free Italy of the barbarian king, Odoacer (Philippe Petain) he escorted his people into Italy in 489, and fought 3 pitched battles with him, taking control over Italy, at considerable cost to the countryside. Unable to dislodge Odoacer from Ravenna, he cruelly tricked him, personally killing him at a banquet with a stroke of his sword, then mercilessly murdered his wife, son and followers. Although recognizing Byzantium Rome, he styled himself king of Italy, even though he could only issue edicts, not laws, and could not make appointments of certain posts without Constantinople’s approval. He remained, however, very much the main legal voice of Italy. Respected Roman institutions, preserved Roman laws and appointed Romans to civil offices, while settling his own Goths on the land. Improved the harbors and roads, revived the country’s agriculture and rebuilt its cities. Allied himself with the Frankish king Clovis (Lucien Bonaparte) by marrying his sister, Audofleda around 493, and had good relations with the other Arian monarchs of the Franks, arbitrating their quarrels and always pushing for peace. One daughter from the union. Also had two daughters with his mistress, Moesia. Surrounded himself with Byzantine pomp, and dressed himself in the purple of emperors, while maintaining a relative peace in Italy for his entire 33 year reign, placing harmonious relations between the Goths and the Romans as his number one priority, despite keeping the 2 nationalities very much separate. Neither persecuted the Romans for their Catholicism, nor the Jews for their creed, despite his loosely following the Arian Christianity of the Goths. Used his own peoples for the soldiers in his armies, so that he could better control their appetites, as well as his kingdom. Pushed the idea of “civilitas” or the civilized life, on his peoples. The greatest blot on his later record was the hasty execution of the Roman scholar, Boethius (Thomas Jefferson), whom he had accused of treason, and which he later came to regret, as his final years were spent in suspicion and distrust. Before his death, he named his grandson Athalaric as his successor and his daughter Amalasuintha as regent. Inner: Possessed an uncommon vigor, both mentally and physically. Peace-loving warrior, not above cruelty, but largely a constructive and healing ruler of his time, and definitely reflective of the approbation of ‘Great.’ Cultured, enjoyed music and good conversation, and a crypto-Roman through his second-hand upbringing. Familiar-stranger-in-a-strange-land lifetime of returning as an alien to a kingdom he secretly knew well in order to integrate an eastern Gothic presence into it, while giving himself further grounding in rule from a completely different perspective than his earlier lives in this series, where he and his geopolity were one. Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus) (76-138) - Roman Emperor. Outer: From a Spanish-Roman family who had settled in Spain. Lost his father when he was 9, and became the ward of the future emperor, Trajan (George Marshall), a cousin of his father. Lived extravagantly as a youth, received some military training, and began his career as a tribune. Married the grandniece of Trajan, Vibia Sabina, in 100, but preferred young boys to women. No children from union and the duo were not particularly close. Also had many affairs with high-born women, an addiction of his. Began rising in rank and posts, accompanying Trajan in the first Dacian War in 102. Briefly governor of Pannonia Inferior in 107. Held a consulship the following year, but then stalled out for nearly a decade when his powerful sponsor, Lucius Sura, died, although he managed during that decade to be active, assuming the important post of governor of Syria in 114. Regained favor before the emperor died, and was adopted by him, which assured the continuation of his career. Assumed the throne in 117, largely on the urging of Trajan’s wife, Plotina (Perle Mesta), a fellow countrywoman who had always favored him. Had 4 senators executed, and when he reached Rome the following year, he stabilized his position. After 3 years in Rome, he toured his Empire, building the wall that bears his name in Britain. Fortified the frontier, consolidated his Roman holdings rather than looking for new conquests as his predecessor had done and traveled extensively. Avoided war whenever possible, and solidified the position of emperor in his handling of military matters, finances and law, viewing his reign as a 2nd Augustan Age. An excellent administrator and builder of cities, although too full of himself to be liked by his associates. Deeply hurt in 130, by the loss of a young man, Antinous, to whom he was especially attached; built a city on the site where he died. Forced his brother-in-law to commit suicide because he didn’t support the adoption of his heir. Great lover of Greek culture, writer and poet. Initiate of the religious Mysteries, as well as astrology and magic. Died a slow and painful death, left no heir, but adopted his successor, Antoninus Pius (Bernard Kouchner). Unpopular by the time of his death. Inner: Dignified, intelligent and intellectual, a philosopher king, but also willful and jealous. Strong sense of the past, and a poet and writer, although curiously was not much of a patron of literature. Also a singer and lute player. Wore a beard, which set the precedent for future generations of emperors. Pragmatic, with a strong sense of humanism. Majestic lifetime of integrating his creative and aesthetic sensibilities with his military adeptness, in fulfilling a role for which his previous existence had set the precedent, while retaining his inborn sense of alienating superiority. Julius Caesar (Gaius Julius Caesar) (100-44BZ) - Roman general and statesman. Outer: From an old patrician family, who were no longer in the inner circles of power, but were strong disciplinarians. Had two sisters, while nothing is known of his early education. Nephew of the general Marius (Adolf Hitler), who appointed him a priest of Jupiter at 13. Two years later his father of the same name died. Broke off another engagement at 17, to marry Cornelia Cinna Minor, the daughter of Lucius Cinna (Joschka Fischer), which brought him into the plebian or popular party. His wife, however, would die in childbirth around 68BZ. Served in Asia Minor, then was exiled briefly by Sulla (FDR), before returning to Rome on that dictator’s death in 78BZ to prosecute his family’s enemies. Active in politics, he was elected to various offices, and in 67BZ, he married Pompeia Sulla, the granddaughter of Sulla and a distant cousin of Pompey (Henry Luce) as well as a noted beauty, who had been married once before. The ill-fated union, however, would end in divorce 5 years later without any issue. Elected aedile in 65BZ, he organized games to insure his name would be known to the Roman mob, but the expense bankrupted him. Nevertheless his debts were paid by Crassus (John D. Rockefeller), the richest man in Rome at the time, who saw in him a useful political ally In 63BZ, he was given the title of pontifex maximus, or priestly head. His third and final wife, would be Calpurnia Pisonis, whom he married in 59BZ, although he would have a long string of mistresses the rest of his life, without any more official children. Began his spectacular military career in 61BZ, as governor of Further Spain. Elected consul in 59BZ, he organized the First Triumvirate with Pompey and Crassus, his former mentor, which dominated Roman politics, although both his partners were jealous of each other. Established a formidable military reputation in the Gallic Wars the following year, and then led campaigns in Britain and Germany as well, proving successful wherever he marched, while always paying his men well. Conquered Gaul in 50BZ, which remained under Roman domination for the next 500 years. Idolized by his army, he knew his men by name, and underwent the same conditions that they did. After Pompey married Caesar’s daughter, he had himself illegally appointed sole consul by the Senate, who feared and hated the popular general. Pompey manipulated the Senate to recall him, under penalty of treason. Declared a public enemy and asked to disband his Army, he marched on Rome instead in 49, fatefully crossing the Rubicon River into Italy, and civil war ensued. Victorious over republican forces in a brilliant 66 day campaign, he drove Pompey and most of the Senate out of Rome. After defeating the Pompeian forces in Spain, he returned to Rome and was made dictator, ending the Roman Republic. Writer, pamphleteer, and microhis/storian of his campaigns. Pursued and defeated Pompey, despite being outnumbered 2 to 1, then defeated his sons and adherents. Helped Cleopatra (Clare Booth Luce) secure power in Egypt, while spawning a son with her, Caesarion (Sonny Bono), then brought the Civil War to completion in 45BZ, after a bloody battle in Spain. Made dictator-for-life in 44BZ. Designated his nephew Octavian (Franklin D. Roosevelt) as his heir. Inspired the Julian calendar, which put the world on solar time, and had the month of Quintilis renamed after him as July. Began wearing a purple toga to indicate his sense of majesty, while he sat, rather than stood in the presence of the Senate, as was the custom. Became a monarchical figure, assuming a godhead stance, which made many Romans nervous, particularly his fellow senators, inspiring 60 of them to get together and form an assassination plot. Just before his departure for a planned campaign against Rome’s eastern neighbor, Parthia, he was assassinated in the Senate by an aristocratic clique loyal to republican ideals, including Cassius (Robert Nivelle) and Brutus (Henri Petain), despite having been warned by his wife that she had dreamt his death in just such a bloody manner. Stabbed twenty-three times, although he managed to cover his face with his toga, so as to maintain some dignity in death. His bier was subsequently burned at the Roman Forum, and his murder was avenged by the triumvirs who were his successors. Deified two years later, while his grand-nephew, Octavian (FDR), who would become Caesar Augustus, and Rome’s first emperor, insured that his name, Caesar, would be the last word in imperial autocracy for the millennia to come in Europe. Inner: Excelled in war, statesmanship, oratory, writing, while being beloved by his supporters and despised by his enemies. Evinced excellent administrative and political skills, and was a brilliant tactician and strategist as well as an inspiring leader. Man of action, occasionally cruel to his enemies, but decisive and indefatigable. Insatiable seducer, including the wives of his greatest political allies. Veni-vidi-vici lifetime of providing the archetypal personality of power for the next 2000 years as soldier, statesman and self-glorifying scribe. Scipio Africanus the Elder (Publius Cornelius) (236-c184B.Z.) - Roman general. Outer: From one of the great patrician families of Rome, including 3 generations of consuls. When his father was consul, he saw him wounded in a cavalry engagement, and charged in to save him. Married the daughter of a consul and had 2 sons. After serving as a military tribune in a Roman defeat, he returned to become an aedile, or mid-rank magistrate, despite his youth, and enjoyed immense popularity. His father and uncle were killed in Spain, and while no senior general wanted to take on the Carthaginians in that country, he volunteered to do so in his mid-20s, and in a precedent-setting move, was given the power by the Roman people. Over the next 4 years, with some help from nature and his own considerable skills, he secured Spain for Rome. Elected consul in his early 30s, then, over/riding some senators, he led a volunteer army into Africa, and defeated Hannibal (Georgi Zhukov), ending the 2nd Punic War between Rome and Carthage. Returned in triumph, was elected censor in 199B.Z. and the titular head of the Senate, which aroused the envy of his fellow senators, while eliciting comparisons with legendary commander, Alexander the Great. Held a 2nd consulship in 194, although was less successful in his panhellenic policies. Fell ill while serving as legate to his brother in a war against Syria, then was tried by his enemies in the senate along with his brother over financial irregularities in the peace terms, but was exonerated, after reminding the country he had been its savior. Retired from politics, to his small villa in the countryside, and cultivated his land by hand, while living modestly. Embittered by his final years, he refused to be buried in Rome, feeling himself an exile. Inner: Extraordinary battlefield skills. A legend within his own life, courageous and charismatic. Generous, magnanimous, educated, with a love of Greek culture. Deep personal connection with the God Jupiter, often communing with him at night. Messianic lifetime of acting out the idealized pagan hero, with strong arm and strong heart and grace in victory, if not quite defeat, in order to teach him his needed lessons of humility. Thutmose IV (?-1390B.Z.) - Egyptian pharaoh. Outer: Of the XVIIIth dynasty. His mother was the chief queen of his predecessor, Amenhotep II (Georgi Zhukov). Fought in Nubia as a young man, proving himself courageous in battle, and later fighting won him the title of “Conqueror of Syria.” Never recognized as co-regent by his father, nor was given his benediction as his successor. As a prince, but not first in line, he served in the Memphis area, where he had a dream of the god Horus, who told him that if he cleared the sand that engulfed the Sphinx, he would ascend to the throne. Did so, and became pharaoh around the year 1400BZ, probably after the death of an older brother. A stele of the dream would be the best known remnant of his rule, since most of it was ill-recorded. Fought in the Syria-Palestine area, then turned to diplomacy to achieve his aims. Married Mutemwiya, the daughter of the Mitannian king, as a diplomatic move, after signing a peace treaty with that empire, son from union Amenhotep III (FDR) succeeded him. Had several other wives, including a sister. Able to put down disturbances in his empire, while overseeing a period of peace and prosperity, so that he was able to hand over a well-crafted kingdom to his son. Restored and embellished many buildings. Also worshipped the sun disc, Aten, who would figure more prominently in later reigns. Died at a relatively early age, after wasting away from an illness. Buried in a tomb on Thebes’ western shore, with a great complex of underground passages. Inner: Active sportsman, memorial builder, skilled hunter, and adept general. To the manner born lifetime of solidifying his skills of rule, and proving himself highly proficient in all his undertakings, before taking that singular lofty sense of being a pharaoh down through time right into the modern age.
PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS ROMANTIC HERO:
Storyline: The chivalrous knight maintains his dashing aplomb and well-mannered medieval ways down through the battlefields and bedrooms of his/story, bringing his special brand of artistry to all he engages martially.
Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (1889-1953) - French general. Outer: From an aristocratic Roman Catholic background. Classically educated and an adept horseman, he studied at several military academies to become a cavalry officer. Long-faced and large-nosed. Fought with distinction as a lieutenant in WW I, and was impaled with a lance, after killing 2 German cavalrymen. Recuperated, returned to battle, and wound up wounded 5 times. Became one of the youngest majors in the French army, and was made an officer of the Legion d’Honneur. Served in Morocco for 5 years, following WW I, and was cited for gallantry. Married in his late 30s, his son became a French officer, who was killed in Vietnam. Joined the staff of the military head of the French army, Gen. Maxime Weygand, in 1933, and was appointed his foreign affairs expert and legislative liaison. Became politically involved, despite a ban on soldiers’ participation in affairs of state, and only Weygand’s refusal to dismiss him saved his career. Viewed as ‘the Red Colonel,’ on the right, because of his desire for a rapprochement with Russia, and reviled on the left, because of his involvement with a possible change in government after riots in 1934. Seen as ‘Le Roi Jean,’ by his admirers for his undeniable panache. At the start of WW II, he commanded an infantry division, showing skill and daring, and remained in France as a major general in the Armistice Army. During the German occupation, he established a camp for young soldiers, imbuing them with patriotism and the glories of France. As the singular divisional commander to advocate resistance to the Vichy occupation, he was arrested by French authorities and sentenced to 10 years imprisonment, but only served 8 months, before his family engineered a successful jailbreak. Joined Charles de Gaulle’s expatriate Free French forces, and went to North Africa to command French troops assigned to the liberation of his country. Landed in southern France in 1944, integrated resistance fighters with his men, and once again proved his martial artistry. After the fall of Germany, he was appointed chief of staff and inspector general, and once again set up a schooling facility for young soldiers, although it proved too expensive to continue. Ultimately made commander of French land forces in Western Europe. Answered the call to duty in Indochina, despite failing health, and helped restore the army’s morale, with a victory at Vinh-Yen. Shattered by his son’s death, he went to the U.S. asking for financial aid for the French struggle in Indochina, precipitating America’s involvement in Vietnam. In poor health, he returned to France to die, and a marshal’s baton was posthumously placed on his coffin. Inner: Patriotic, liberal, magnetic, unafraid to challenge those above him. Highly political, with the desire to unite the military and the civilian in common aims and goals. Integrating lifetime of bringing his evolving love of freedom into 20th century France, in his continual martial and political identification with that country’s ongoing democratic evolution. Marie-Joseph Lafayette (Marie-Joseph-Paul-Yves-Roch-Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette) (1757-1834) - French general and statesman. Outer: From an aristocratic French family. His father was a colonel in the Grenadiers, who was killed fighting the British when he was 2. In compensation, he dreamed of military glory from youth onwards. On the death of his mother and grandmother in 1770, he inherited vast estates and became a marquis. His formal schooling only lasted from the ages of 11 to 15, at the College du Plessis in Paris, where he was imbued with the civic virtues of Republican Rome. Afterwards. he enlisted in a company of musketeers. In 1774, he married Marie de Noailles, a duke’s daughter, 2 daughters and a son from the union. Part of a circle of high-living courtiers, although eager for action, he left France in 1776 to participate in the American War of Independence. Commissioned a major general in the Continental Army, and despite the misgivings of both the king and his family, he reached America in the summer of the following year. Had a long and fruitful friendship with George Washington (George Marshall), who, although initially resistant to the teenaged soldier, was soon won over by his sheer force of his personality. Fought well and was wounded at Brandywine, then played a large role in the conflict with decisive victories, skillful retreats and all-around initiative, as well as serving as an important link to America’s French alliance. Returned to France in 1782 and was made a major general as “a hero of 2 worlds.” An enthusiastic reformer, he became a leader of the liberal aristocrats and was elected to the first Estates General in 1789. Played a prominent role in the French Revolution, after being made commandant of the National Guard of Paris the same year. 2nd only to the king in the eyes of his countrymen, as the moderate leader of the early stages of the Revolution. Wrote the first draft of France’s Declaration of the Rights of Man, and invented the tricolor cockade, which symbolized the republican aspects of the Revolution. Saved the life of the king and queen, then became increasingly alarmed at the direction towards which things were heading, since he wanted a constitutional monarchy, not a regicidal overthrow of the old order. Resigned from the guard after they fired on an angry mob. Appointed army commander as a lieutenant general in 1792, but was held under suspicion by the Jacobins, and relieved of his post. Fled to Belgium, and wound up being held captive for 5 years, first by the Austrians, then the Prussians, under abysmal conditions. After sending their son to America as a ward of Washington, his wife and two daughters joined him in prison. Returned to France, and settled on his estates, where he pursued model agricultural practices. Found Napoleon’s excesses, although not his victories, deplorable, and remained retired for the next 15 years. Declined an offer to be governor of the Louisiana Territory during this period. Not active in public life until 1815 when he served in the Chamber of Deputies on the fall of Napoleon. Had a triumphal visit to America where he was once again acclaimed as a hero in the mid-1820s, and finished his active career by commanding the guard that overthrew the last Bourbon, King Charles X (Charles Pathe) and installed Louis-Philippe (Boris Yeltsin) in his stead, by wrapping him in a tri-color flag and embracing him. Continued espousing liberal causes until his death, and wound up opposing the latter’s authoritarianism, for which Louis-Philippe never forgave him. When he died, no eulogies were allowed at his funeral. Inner: Vigorous, imaginative military adept with a thirst for glory and a knack for controversy. Champion of liberty and freedom, and an inspirational leader. Had a close family life in between engagements. Long interment and even longer quasi-retirement in mid-career probably gave him some introspective sense of himself, removing him from the active sphere in order to do so. Active and reflective lifetime of acting and reacting to chaotic events, and emerging at its end with a completed sense of accomplishment. Francois-Louis Conti (Francois-Louis de Bourbon, prince de Conti) (1664-1709) - French prince. Known as the ‘Great Conti.’ Outer: From the reigning House of Bourbon, and a prince of the blood. Younger son of the governor of Languedoc. Mother was Italian, and the niece of Cardinal Jules Mazarin (Francois Talleyrand). Received an excellent education, and evinced social adeptness as well as a quick mind. Involved with the theater while at court, in putting on plays and spectacles, but his libidinous pursuits resulted in contracting syphilis from a prostitute, which would afflict him greatly in later life. Insulted Louis XIV (Charles De Gaulle) by calling him a theatre king in one of his letters while fighting in Hungary, and was temporarily banished. In his mid-20s, he married Marie-Therese de Bourbon-Condé, the granddaughter of the Great Condé (Yul Brynner), who considered him one of his favorites, 7 children from the union, but only one son, Louis Armand II (Baron Redesdale) survivedr. Succeeded his brother in 1685 to the family title. Fought in the Netherlands in 1689, and went on to prove himself an excellent military commander, victorious in all his battles. On the death of his cousin, he claimed the principality of Neuchatel, but failed to gain military assistance from the Swiss, and was forced, by king’s command, to yield it to his cousin’s sister, despite having won legal approval for it. Earned the further competitive enmity of Louis XIV by the attentions of the monarch’s married daughter towards him. Louis tried to get rid of him by making him king of Poland in 1697. Reluctantly went to claim his throne, but returned when a German prince had already put his royal bottom upon it. The king was then forced to give him another military command in Italy, but he fell ill and died of a combination of syphilis and the gout before he could take it. Deeply mourned afterwards by one and all. Inner: Charming, self-assured, sexually ambivalent. Brave, thorough warrior, unafraid of authority. Insouciant lifetime of playing his princely mien off of kingly ire, while being well-loved by nearly everyone else for his derring and do. Francois de Guise (Francois, de Lorraine, 2nd duc de Guise) (1519-1563) - French general and nobleman. Outer: Eldest son of Claude Lorraine, the future 1st duc of Guise. Charming, handsome and brave. Fought for the king in the seige of Boulogne in 1545, and was severely wounded. His life was saved by the king’s surgeon, leaving him with a huge scar that earned him the nickname, ‘Le Balafre,’ the Scarred. On the ascension of Henri II (Robert Downey, Jr.), he was made master of the hunt and great chamberlain, quelling a tax revolt with firmness and style, although winning the jealous enmity of the rival Montmorency family. In 1548, he married Anna d’Este, the daughter of the Duke of Ferrara. 4 children who reached maturity, including his eldest son Henri (Andrew Jackson), who eventually succeeded him. 3 others died young. Succeeded to his father’s duchy on the latter’s death in 1550. Proved himself in battle again against the imperial forces of HRE Charles V (Napoleon Bonaparte), but then was sent to Naples, before being suddenly recalled to repel an invasion by the Spanish army in northern France. Able to bring his army back intact, and give the French the military impetus they needed by capturing the fortress of Calais in 1558, expelling the English from France. With the death of Henri and the accession of Francois II (Roald Dahl) in 1559, his family fortunes rose and he became grandmaster of the royal household and was appointed lieutenant general to deal with a jealous Bourbon conspiracy against his family, which he did ruthlessly, eliciting much hatred in some quarters. With the death of Francois, the following year, and the accession of the former’s brother Charles IX (Rajiv Gandhi), his influence once again waned in favor of Montmorency, but they were reconciled the following year. His attack on a Huguenot congregation in 1562 provided the spark for a religious civil war. Crushed a coup, then saw his royal favor slip with the death of the king, but reconciled with the Montmorency family, and then sparked the religious wars with an attack on a Huguenot congregation. When Anne de Montmorency (Richard Harris) was captured, he became sole commander of the royal army, as a lieutenant general. Preparing to siege Orleans, when he was assassinated by a Huguenot fanatic. Virtual military dictator of France at the time of his death. Inner: Handsome, charming, brave, enterprising, energetic, well-loved by his men and mostly loyal to the crown. Sword-in-hand lifetime of openly bearing his wounds like a facial stigmata, only to fall ultimate victim to an inner draw towards Christian martyrdom, as a cleansing for his coupling of the sword and the cross. Louis III, duc of Anjou and Touraine (1403-1434) - French Neapolitan ruler. Outer: Grandson of Louis I, 1st duke of Anjou-Maine (Charles de Gaulle) and son of the 2nd duke of Anjou, whom he succeeded at the age of 14, gaining the counties of Maine and Provence, as well as title to the kingdom of Sicily and Naples. Crowned King of Naples in 1419, by the Pope Martin V (Martin Luther King), and sailed to Naples to claim his kingdom with a large army but ran afoul of the capricious Joanna II (Clare Booth Luce), who favored Alfonso V of Aragon, making him her heir. Arrived 2 years later and prevented the former from claiming the entire kingdom. When Alfonso usurped some of Joanna’s royal prerogative, she renounced his rights and readopted her original heir, and named him governor of the duchy of Calabria. A decade later, in 1433, she again disinherited him, only to re-embrace him later that year. His forces, however, had successfully won the kingdom outright from Alfonso, and were about to expel him, when he suddenly died, and his inheritance passed on to his brother Rene of Anjou (Henry Luce). Inner: Continued relationship lifetime with the Joanna/Cleopatra character, operating this time with a political rather than romantic attachment, and coming to a similar, sudden end.Marc Antony (c82-30BZ) - Roman general and statesman. Outer: Son of a military commander of the same name, who died at a young age. His mother remarried a politician, who was executed in 63BZ. Along with his two brothers, he led a dissipated youth, piling up huge debts, gambling, gamboling and drinking, but then served with distinction as a cavalry commander, before joining the staff of Julius Caesar (Charles de Gaulle), to whom he was related through his mother. Married 3 times on his rise through various offices, beginning with Fadia, of whom little is known, including their offspring. Divorced his second wife, Antonia Hybridia Minor, a cousin, for cohabiting with a friend, one daughter from the union. Had two sons by his third wife, Fulvia, the eldest of whom was eventually executed, while the second married the daughter of his fourth wife’s first marriage. Became a tribune in 49BZ, and was a vigorous Caesar supporter in the Senate. Fled the capital, then successfully fought alongside Caesar in the subsequent civil war, assuring the latter’s dictatorship, although he was removed from his post as regent of Italy, before becoming Caesar’s colleague again and consul. After Caesar’s assassination in 44BZ, he chased the chief conspirators from Rome and was challenged for senate leadership by Caesar’s nephew Octavian (FDR), with whom he ultimately formed the second triumvirate in 43BZ, and was given Asia as his command. The triumvirate crushed republican forces and ruled for 5 years, as he took administration of the eastern provinces. Entered into a passionate romance with Cleopatra (Clare Booth Luce), queen of Egypt, in 41BZ. Married for a 4th time, to Octavian’s sister, Octavia (Darryl Hannah), after his 3rd wife died in the midst of a revolt against the latter. A daughter from the union, Antonia (Rose Kennedy), became the mother of the emperor Claudius (Joseph Goebbals). After more warfare, he settled in Alexandria with Cleopatra and gave himself over to a life of sensual pleasure, fathering 3 children with her, while fantasizing about creating a new Roman dynasty with her, with Alexandria at its epicenter. The triumvirate officially ended in 32BZ, and he divorced Octavian’s sister, impelling Octavian to declare war on Cleopatra. Defeated in a naval battle against Octavian, he was deserted by his troops, and nearly a year after, when Cleopatra had sent him a message that she had undone herself, he fell on his sword, and was carried to her, dying in her presence. Inner: Likable personality, outstanding leader, sensualist, good general. Undone by his own passions, and a thirst for meaningless conquest. Astute politician with a talent for oratory, but ruled more by his emotions than the cold cunning of his ultimate enemy. Foundation lifetime of giving public play to his duality of warrior and lover, a theme he would continue to explore, intertwining his emotionality with his martial expertise.
PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS POLITICAL PHILOSOPHER:
Storyline: The regal scholar investigates social contracts from all levels of observation, from the top on down, in his ongoing education in conservative utopic and pragmatic ideals.
Raymond Aron (1905-1983) - French philosopher. Outer: From an old Jewish family. Related to Emile Durkheim, founder of French sociology. Son of a brilliant Jewish lawyer, who viewed himself as a failure, having lost his inheritance in the stock market. Had a lifelong friendship and intellectual rivalry with Jean Paul Sartre from college days onward, where he was initially a socialist and a pacifist. The duo took divergent stands on virtually every major political and philosophical issue, and dominated French intellectual life in the process. As schoolboys, they made a mutual vow to do just that, in order to compensate for their physical homeliness. 5’7”, 154 lbs. Received a doctorate of letters from the Ecole Normal Superieure in 1930, and spent time in Germany, witnessing firsthand Hitler’s rise to power, and its attendant anti-Semitism. Returned to France and taught at various schools in the decade before WW II, as well as serving as secretary of the Centre de Documentation Sociale for 5 years. Married Suzanne Gauchon, a teacher of Latin and Greek in 1933, son and daughter from union. During the war, he joined the French Air Force. After the fall of France, he served in London with Charles de Gaulle and the Free French forces, editing their official organ, La France Libre, although he became a leading critic of de Gaulle later. Showed himself strongly anti-totalitarian during this period, and classically liberal, while failing to condemn the Vichy government, seeing it as only a “parenthesis” in French his/story. After the war, he resumed his professorial career at the Sorbonne, although his focus for the rest of his life would be largely journalistic. Wrote for a leftist paper, and then became a highly influential columnist for the conservative Le Figaro over the next 3 decades. Decidedly pro-American, to the point of secretly working for the U.S. secret services, albeit sympathetic to some Marxist ideology, without being pro-Communist. Saw Montesquieu and Tocqueville, 2 earlier manifestations of himself, as the basis for his own political ideology, while establishing his reputation as a skeptic of sociological orthodoxies. Left Le Figaro, and for the rest of his life wrote a political column for the weekly magazine L’Express. A supporter of the Western Alliance, he became more conservative as he grew older, castigating the students for the 1968 Paris demonstrations, and became for some, through Sartre’s prodding, a symbol of the old and the outdated of the university. Suffered a stroke in 1977 and lost his speech for a while, as well as permanently losing his ability to read and write German, which was at the core of much of his earlier philosophical composing, as champion of Max Weber versus Karl Marx (Victor Serge). Extremely prolific, he composed 35 books as well as hundreds of articles. Wrote his memoirs at the end of his life. After testifying as a witness at the trial of a friend accused of Nazism, he suffered a heart attack in his car outside the court building, and died. Inner: Logical, exact, cool, lucid and skeptical. Continuation lifetime of persisting in the exact same conservatively liberal intellectual traditions he had earlier established as a man of doubt and questioning, bringing those traits into the 20th century, without his usual trappings of class or office. Alexis de Tocqueville (1805-1859) - French political scientist, sociologist and statesman. Outer: Son of a Norman aristocratic family. Tutored at home under a family friend, then studied at a lycee in Metz where his father was prefect. Sickly as a child, he listened to his invalid mother sing royalist songs in his father’s chateau, making for an odd upbringing for a subsequent champion on democracy. Discovered the Philosophes in his father’s library, which would give him his own sociological foundation. Studied law in Paris, then followed his father into government service as a junior magistrate. Sympathetic with the government, so that after the July revolution of 1830, he obtained a leave of absence with a close friend to study the American penal system. After 9 and 1/2 months in the U.S., their joint report won him lasting fame, and a seat in the French Academy. Democracy in America, which was published in several volumes, became a classic of its kind, serving as a New World blueprint for future possibilities for European democracy. Saw that tensions between status and equality were at the heart of democracy. Despite an aristocratic outlook and anti-revolutionary sentiments, he understood the sociological patterns of custom and law, making his insights invaluable. At 30, he visited England and married Mary Mottely, an English commoner, which upset her family and broke class precedence with him. Theirs was a happy union, however, and his wife later superintended the publication of his posthumous works. Elected to the Chamber of Deputies, playing a major role after the Revolution of 1848, when he became a member of the Constituent Assembly and the committee which drafted the constitution of the Second Republic. Never felt comfortable in public life, saw it as a sense of duty rather than an enthusiastic calling. Served briefly as minister of foreign affairs, then resigned at the start of the 2nd Empire, to travel and write a his/story of France and his memoirs. Died of tuberculosis. Inner: Roman Catholic in outlook and beliefs, with a sense of universality to humanity. Intuitive thinker, working from moral, conservative, rational base, as well as one of subjectively objective detachment. Keenly observant lifetime of contributing greatly to the notion of democracy and allowing his mental processes to evolve alongside the evolutionary processes of his/story. Charles Montesquieu (Charles Louis de Secondat, Baron de la Brede et Montesquieu) (1689-1755) - French political and legal philosopher. Outer: From a noble family of lawyers. Mother died when he was 7, father was quite devoted to him, while he inherited his title from an uncle, after becoming his heir. Studied law in Bordeaux and Paris and served in the parlement of Bordeaux, before his uncle transferred his office to him. In his mid-20s, he married Jeanne de Lartrigue, an heiress and became a member of the Academie de Bordeaux, devoting himself to scientific researches, prior to his first literary success, which was an epistolary novel of 2 visiting Persians commenting on and satirizing the decline and projected fall of French Regency society. Frequented intellectual and social circles in Paris and was elected to the French Academy in 1728, the same year he began his extensive travels. Looked like a Roman senator, and was magisterial in appearance. Traveled around the continent, then spent 2 years in England, observing their legal system. Most of the rest of his life was spent in research and writing, analyzing how varying conditions generate both written and unwritten laws, beginning with the Romans, whom he saw paralleled the coming disintegration of France. Spent his last years defending The Spirit of the Laws, which was censored by the Roman Catholic Church for its belief in consciousness and free will as the ultimate liberator of humanity. The final 7 years of his life were lived in relative seclusion. His works played a later role in the framing of the American Constitution. Inner: Both compassionate and passionate in his beliefs, with the dispassionate ability to view the larger patterns of his/story. Preferred frequenting aristocratic, rather than literary circles, maintaining his Olympian view of life around him. Eyes-wide-open lifetime of freeing his considerable critical faculties through the process of satire, analysis and lucid exposition. Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592) - French essayist. Outer: His family had bought their way into the nobility after having been successful fish and wine merchants on his father’s side and converted Spanish and Portuguese Jews on his mother’s. His sire was the first in his line to abandon business for the life of a gentleman, and he was the first to adopt the name of their estate rather than employ his actual surname of Eyquem. Given an unusual education, according to his father’s ideas. Wet-nursed by a peasant in order to offer him a sense of the masses, then only exposed to Latin at the age of 2 by a German tutor who spoke no French, while the servants were also encouraged to discourse in Latin. Spoke no French and perfect Latin at the age of 6. Studied the classics for 7 years in a leading school, then studied law at the Univ. of Toulouse, before becoming a councillor at a court in Perigueux. Short, well-proportioned, he began keeping a loose record of his interior in jottings and notes that would ultimately find themselves in his lasting life’s work, his essays. Served in the parlement of Bourdeaux, during which time he showed little inclination for the law, while pursuing his classical studies. Formed a strong friendship with Etienne de La Boetie (Leon Blum) during this time, sharing an intimate intellectual rapport, and never quite recovered from his death in 1563. His father, in the interim, had become mayor of Bordeaux, and would take him to Paris with him on business. Made 8 trips to the City of Lights and grew to love it, although was thwarted from his political ambitions by his disillusioning contacts with the royal court. In 1565, he married Francoise de la Chassaigne, the daughter of one of his colleagues, 6 daughters from union, although only one survived infancy. His father died in 1568, leaving him heir to the family estate, and 2 years later he sold his post and retired to devote himself to writing, “slippered contemplation” and travel. Got a first-hand view of politics through a friendship with the future Henri IV (FDR), serving as an intermediary for him. Also was elected mayor of Bordeaux twice, beginning in 1581. Traveled throughout France as well as neighboring countries, particularly in later life when he was looking for a cure for his gallstones. Fascinated in particular by the antiquities of Rome, as well as Roman culture, beginning with the Stoics. Read extensively, particularly Plutarch, an earlier life of his, finding both a similarity of ideas and temperament in his writings, which he used as a basis for his own style of exposition, employing anecdote and commentary as his means of self-revelation. Best remembered for his Essays, an intellectual self-portrait and statement of political and philosophical principles, which showed him to be reactionary, revolutionary and everything in between, and had an enormous influence. Died of gout and gallstones. Inner: Honest, candid, humane and introspective. Self-seeking lifetime of exquisite self-portraiture, celebrating his own ongoing search for truth, and ultimately finding it in nature and the sheer joy of existence as well as the profound acceptance of his own humanity. Charles V (1338-1380) - King of France. Known as “the Wise.” Outer: Oldest son of Jean II (Bernard Baruch), mother was the daughter of the duke of Burgundy. First to bear title of Dauphin, deriving from the Dauphine region of France, which his grandfather had purchased for the crown. Thin and pale, delicate and frail. His health was always undermined, perhaps from an early poisoning attempt by a jealous cousin. In 1350, at the age of 13, he married Joanna de Bourbon, the daughter of the duke of Bourbon, 9 children from the union, although only 3 survived infancy, including his successor, Charles VI (Reza Abdoh) and Louis, duc d’Orleans (Ernest Hemingway). Had a loving relationship with his wife, although she became unstable later in the marriage. Earlier, he had preferred the company of his mistress, but remained faithful to his wife once he became king, feeling his duties of office demanded high moral resolve on his part. Succeeded his father later in 1350, after acting as Lieutenant-General of the Realm during the latter’s periods of captivity in England, so that he already had considerable experience of state, despite his youth, when he donned the crown. Cultured, scholarly with little taste for war, although very successful in his military campaigns, thanks to his generals. Intellectual and religious, he established a royal library, and patronized learning and the arts. His political decisions fed into the schism of the papacy, while his economic designs did not match his taste for pomp and circumstance. Devastated by the death of his wife in childbirth, which caused his death from kidney failure 2 years later. At the end of his life he had to be borne on a litter, while his hands became so deformed by gout, that his nails dried up and fell out. Inner: Even-tempered, highly intelligent, probably felt the rigors of the crown were poisonous on some level to his own individual growth. Uncomfortable-lies-the-crown lifetime of gradually giving his body away in an intense search for the truth within himself through physical suffering, necessitating a much more cerebral approach to the same ends in his lives-to-come in this series. Alfonso X (1220-1284) - Spanish king of Castile and Holy Roman Emperor. Known as “the Wise.” Outer: Eldest son of the king of Castile, mother was the granddaughter of HRE Friedrich I (J.P. Morgan). Evinced an early facility for scholarship, and pursued it for the rest of his life. Married Violante d’Aragon, the daughter of the king of Aragon in 1246, 10 children from the union, including his successor Sancho IV. Succeeded his father in 1252. Had many scholars in his traveling court, and proved a far better professorial figure than a a monarch. Compiled a series of astrological charts as well as a digest of laws, based on the Roman model, which he wanted to use as uniform code for his realm. Court scholars wrote in Castilian, making it into a literary language. They also compiled a world his/story, although it was based as much on folklore, as it was on fact. Taxed his subjects heavily to support his court, as well as his taste for lavish gifts, and his own desire to secure several foreign titles, including the imperial crown of the Holy Roman Empire in 1256. Used bribery to secure the latter, but was unable to go to Germany, and ultimately was forced to renounce his title, wasting much time and expenditure over it. Crushed 2 Muslim revolts early in is reign, but was less successful with later uprisings. While he was in France trying to convince the pope about his validity to the Roman crown, Morocco and Granada invaded his lands, and he lost a son in the fighting. his last years were embittered because of battles among his potential heirs. Died of grief and anxiety when he heard that his son, who had rebelled, then reconciled with him, had been taken seriously ill, although the latter recovered while the former did not. Inner: Information-gatherer, as in his other lives in this series, doing more to add to the libraries of Spain than its glory. Titled lifetime of switching to his ruling mode, while better serving his scholarly side. Gelasius I (?-496) - Italian pope. Outer: Of Berber descent, although was born in Rome and ulltimately became the third and last of north African origin to occupy the Chair of St. Peter. Early life largely unrecorded. Became a priest, and enjoyed a reputation for learning and justice, winning him entry to the papal court. Employed by his predecessor ,Felix III, in drawing up ecclesiastical documents, and worked so closely with him, there is some confusion as to exactly which of the two wrote what. On Felix’s death in 492, he was immediately elected pope. A prolific writer even while pope, he used the opinions of both early Church fathers Augustine (Thomas Merton) and Ambrose (Reinhold Neibuhr) to formulate a political theory of the papacy, and also penned a host of letters to his eastern counterparts. By the time of his pontificate, it was quite clear that authority over the spiritual and secular world would be split. Although there were biblical figures who held supremacy in both realms, authority needed to be divided between the church and the state, and he gave papal definition to the two realms in his “Duo sunt,” in which he advocated immunity in both spheres from one another, so as to underline their respective primacies. Also had to deal with an ongoing controversy with the eastern Orthodox church which contended that Jesus had but one nature, divine, while the Roman church believed he had both a divine and human nature. Ultimately excommunicated the patriarch of Constantinople over the heresy. Became the first pope to be titled “Vicar of Christ,” after insisting on the primacy of the papacy as the ultimate arbiter of Catholic life, so that the See of Rome was foremost among Christian bishoprics. Closed down Roman pagan festivals to give the Eternal City its further orthodox cast, and made the most of his four years in the Chair of St. Peter to bestow upon the papacy its preeminent positon in western European Christian life, while further underlining the divide between the eastern and western churches. Inner: Extremely focused, with a deep understanding of what the papacy needed to give it a supreme place in the earthly religious sphere. Clear vision lifetime of seeing the See of Rome as the prime bishopric of the Christian world, and giving it the documentation and action in order to make it so. Plutarch (c46-c125) - Greek biographer and philosopher. Outer: Son of Aristobolus, a well-known biographer and philosopher. Educated in Athens, where he studied mathematics and philosophy, before traveling widely through the Roman Empire, and living in Rome in his mid-20s. Lectured there on philosophy, while enjoying a wide circle of friends, and probably knew the emperors Trajan (George Marshall) and Hadrian (Charles de Gaulle), with the former appointing him an ex-consul. Made a Roman citizen, before returning to settle in his native town in Greece, where he held several posts, including magistrate. Also served as a Priest of Apollo, and directed a school where he taught. Married Timoxena, with at least 5 children, 2 of whom survived childhood. Became an initiate of the cult of Dionysus, showing more of a mystic bent as he grew older, as well as a belief in the immortality of the soul. Showed a wide range of interests in his enormous literary output, from the scientific to the ethical to the political to the his/storical, but is best remembered for his biographies, Parallel Lives in which he paired Greek and Roman heroes, choosing his subjects by their characters or careers. Did an intensive amount of research, although was hampered in the Roman portions by his imperfect knowledge of Latin, which he had acquired later in life. A lucid, albeit superficial writer, he relied on anecdote and avoided unpleasant answers to specific human problems. His works had an enormous influence in his own time and in subsequent Grecian, Byzantine, Renaissance and English cultures, up to the 19th century, and he still remains a highly admired writer for the ages. Inner: Humanistic, moral and idealistic. Biased in his selections and beliefs by his own Grecian perspective, but always looking for moral and virtuous stories to illustrate his points. Set the patterns for his parallel Montaigne life, transposing his quasi-monotheistic paganism for Christianity in the latter attempt at self-exploration. Preferred Grecian culture and small-town life. Self-seeking lifetime of exploring himself through the analyzed lives of others, while creating a literary oeuvre for all time.
PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS POLITICAL PHILOSOPHER:
Storyline: The restless reformer brings a keen intellect and an abiding belief in the power of the people to his ongoing evolution from royalist to socialist to communist to anti-capitalist, showing a passionate commitment to change on all levels, most especially in himself.
Olivier Besanconet (1974) - French populist politician. Outer: Father was a teacher and mother was a school psychiatrist. Sensitive about his bourgeois upbringing, although later claimed his parents were from the working-class, and his neighborhood was largely Communist. Became politicized by the violence and racism of his environs, and in his early teens, he joined the Revolutionary Communist Youth in 1988. Clean-cut, earnest and wholesome looking, giving him a faux naif look. Went to the Univ. of Paris X Nanterre, from where the May, 1968 student demonstrations had originally erupted, and studied his/story there. At the same time he worked in a supermarket, where he formed a branch of a larger trade union. In 1991, he also joined the LCR, the Communist Revolutionary League, a Trotskyite group, although refuses to label himself, feeling revolutionary stances usually wind up as acts of self-betrayal. Completed his studies at Univ. of Paris VI in contemporary his/story, gaining a master’s there, then deliberately took a job as a letter carrier in an affluent Parisian suburb in 1997, in order to have his working-class bona fides. Wound up working part-time as such, with his real focus on a high profile political career. Took time off at decade’s end to serve as a parliamentary attaché to Alain Krivine, a Trotskyite member of the European Parliament. In 2002, at the age of 28, he made his own his/story by becoming France’s youngest presidential candidate ever. Running on a revolutionary socialist platform, he gained over one million votes, ultimately garnering 4.25 % of the total, proving popular with those under 25, while ultimately losing to the conservative incumbent Jacques Chirac. Ran again in 2007, on the slogan of, “Our lives are worth more than their profits.” Presented himself as an anti-capitalist leftist, looking for more egalitarian distribution of wealth, while distancing himself from the traditional Socialist Party, in keeping with a longtime French tradition of “more leftist than thou.” Gained 400,000 more votes than he did in 2002, although his over-all percentage was a bit smaller. Called for a united front against the ultimate Conservative winner Nicolas Sarkozy. To that end, in 2008, he launched the New Anticapitalist Party, with the ideal of uniting the entire far left under one populist banner, while exploiting youthful anti-globalization sentiments. His growing popularity would be an embarrassment to more hidebound Socialist leaders, while some of his comrades would accuse him of being a glory-hound for his frequent TV appearances, and others would contend the NPA had little relevance to real working people, and was actually a tool of the very forces it opposed. Announced he would not run in 2012, for fear he was becoming a caricature of what he had started out to be, in an overall European atmosphere drifting ever rightward. Inner: Articulate, media-savvy and telegenic with a retooled socialistic message viewing capitalism as the primary evil of our time. A fast and fluent talker, who is well-schooled in Marxist and post-Marxist philosophy. Rather than the latter’s dictatorship of the proletariat, he is a firm believer in democracy and decentralized authority. Realistic ideologue interested in reviving a discredited ideology and taking it in renewed form into the 21st century. Far more the questioner than the answer-giver. Down with the rich lifetime of continuing to evolve along the larger lines of socialistic/communistic thought as an exemplar of a searcher still seeking social answers through extant and projected social institutions. Leon Blum (1872-1950) - French statesman. Outer:From an Alsatian Jewish family. 2nd of 5 boys,with one brother dying in a German concentration camp. His family was prosperous, and his mother was liberal-minded. His blind grandmother owned a bookstore and held political salons twice a week, imbuing him with a radical social sense. A precocious youth, he studied at the Ecole Normale Suprieure, while frequenting literary salons in Paris. Tall and willowy, with long hair, blue-grey eyes and flat feet which gave him a duck’s waddle. Given to dandyish dress, replete with spats and scented handkerchiefs, he reveled in being highly noticeable, and with his habit of flailing his arms as he spoke, he easily became a caricaturist’s delight. Always had a passion for the theater, and worked as a literary and theater critic, while proving to be a prolific writer on a great variety of subjects. Got a law degree from the Sorbonne, graduating with highest honors in 1894 and spent 26 years as an auditor, aiding the state in drafting legislation, and determining the bearing of new laws on old ones. Eventually reached the top sphere of the French civil service. Married Therese Pereyra in 1896, one son from the union. Politicized by the Dreyfus Affair and its inherent anti-Semitism, he joined the French Socialist Party in 1904. Began his politcal life in 1919 when he was elected to the Chamber of Deputies. Able to reconstruct the party after its Communist faction inherited its basic machinery and funds. Began its newspaper, Le Populaire, while opposing the majority governments. Although his party emerged triumphant in the 1928 elections, he lost his seat, but returned the following year and was re-elected in 1932 and 1936. Savagely attacked in the street the latter year by thugs, but saved by civil servants from the War Ministry. His first wife died in 1931, and he remarried the following year, but his 2nd wife died in 1938. Worked for solidarity between all the left-wing opponents of Fascism, while putting together an alliance called the Popular Front, which won a large majority in the 1936 elections. As its leader, he became premier in 1936, achieving 2 firsts, that of being a Jewish Socialist head of government. Introduced the 40 hour work week against considerable opposition, while securing paid vacations and collective bargaining for many workers. Also nationalized the chief war industries and the Bank of France as well as other social reforms. Bitterly opposed by the captains of French industry, who supported the dark slogan, “Better Hitler than Blum,” despite the threat of aggression from their Nazi neighbors. Resigned in 1937 after the conservative majority in the Senate refused to give him emergency powers in dealing with the country’s financial problems. Served as vice-premier in the next modified Popular Front government, but refused office under his successor. In 1940, after the collapse of France, he was indicted by the Vichy government, but gave such a spirited defense in his subsequent trial that so discomfited both the Germans and their French stooges, that his hearings were suspended and he remained in prison for the rest of the WW II. Released in 1945, he spent the post-war period as one of France’s leading statesmen. Formed a brief caretaker government in 1946, then retired from public life, save for one short stint as a vice-premier. Inner: Low physical energy with a high-pitched voice. His impeccable manners made him seem distant and cold. Idealistic and pragmatic, willing to compromise to get things done, while integrating his humanitarian instincts with positive programs for social improvement, although he ultimately became the victim of the recalcitrant right. Principled lifetime of integrating his earlier theoretical musings with political action, with mixed results. Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (1809-1865) - French political theorist. Outer: From peasant stock, his mother had been a cook, while his father was a cooper, brewer and all-around failure. Had an impoverished childhood, and was forced to leave school at 16 because of a lack of finances, despite an aptitude for study. Apprenticed himself to a printer and was self-educated via galley proofs, teaching himself Greek and Hebrew. Lost his job in the depression that followed the 1830 revolution and traveled in France and Switzerland looking for work, before settling in Paris, where he found support to write. Returned to his Besancon printing shop in 1833 with a new determination to be a writer. Wrote a philological tract in 1838 and was given prize money for 3 years that allowed him to return to Paris, where he attended lectures, read and did hack journalism, meagerly supporting both himself and his parents. His newspaper work brought him into social studies, and in the course of a scholarly essay, he wrote his most incendiary egalitarian lines, “What is property? Property is theft,” which brought him unwanted notoriety and almost cost him his prize pension. A pair of followup pieces 2 years later caused his pension to be revoked and put him on trial for offending religion and morals, although he was acquitted. Won the plaudits of economic philosopher Karl Marx (Victor Serge), who wrote an enthusiastic review of his work, before heaping vituperation on him for his next oeuvre, in which he defended bourgeois family life. Despite revolutionary sentiments, he supported no party, nor were any of his stances consistent. Anti-feminist, anti-universal suffrage, he was called the “Robinson Crusoe of Socialism,” by later Russian revolutionary Leon Trotsky. Also a strong anti-Semite, viewing commercial Jews as the enemy of mankind, and calling for their extermination, which probably necessitated his ultimate return in that religion in order to re-integrate their projected shadow into himself. His influence, however, did spread to Russia, through his affinity with anarchist Mikhail Bakunin (Joseph Stalin) and journalist Alexandr Herzen (V. Lenin), because of his dictum that the aim of revolution is no government, and the ultimate goal of free society is anarchy. Elected to the constituent assembly in 1848, in the revolutionary wake of the time, but quickly alienated himself from most of his political allies. The following year he married Euphrasie Piegard, a workingclass woman, while on parole from prison. The happy relationship produced 4 daughters. Founded and edited several newspapers, one of which put him on trial again for sedition, in which he was sentenced to 3 years. Allowed to write and study, and it proved a productive period. Lived on the outskirts of Paris for 5 years on his release, before publishing a broadside at the Church, which caused another sensation and gave him another sentence of 3 years, although he fled to Belgium, and settled in Brussels. His last treatise, War and Peace, glorified the former at the expense of the latter, and probably served as the title of Russian novelist Leo Tolstoy’s later monumental work of the same name. Returned to France in 1862, and struggled through his end-life, trying to support his family by writing. Died of heart failure brought on by asthma. Had a huge crowd of some 6000 at his funeral. Inner: Inconsistent, called himself a man of paradoxes. Simple tastes and lifestyle, sometimes affected peasant dress. Eloquent, fiery writer whose ideas enflamed revolutionary thinkers throughout Europe despite their inconsistencies. Paradoxical lifetime of continually being subjected to life’s vicissitudes, making him a radical, influential thinker as well as an ongoing prisoner of his own unresolved dualities. Camille Desmoulins (1760-1794) - French journalist and revolutionary. Outer: From a large family, where he was the favored son. Father was an official and a lieutenant-colonel in the local militia. His family had scrimped and saved to send him to Paris for his education, hoping he would become a lawyer, while the rest of his male siblings entered the military. Admitted to the bar in 1785, but a stammer impeded his legal career. Met Maximilien Robespierre (Joseph Stalin) at the outbreak of the French Revolution and fell in with his group, while supporting himself through writing. Saw the monarchy as a depraved institution sucking the life out of the country, and in an impulsive moment, exhorted a crowd through his impassioned oratory, while clutching a pistol in one hand and his breast in another to take up arms, which led to a popular insurrection culminating in the storming of the Bastille in the summer of 1789. Wrote an emotional paean of the event, and plunged headlong into revolutionary activity. His further republican essays supported the bourgeois democratic reforms of the National Assembly, and by the fall, he began a newspaper that upheld his democratic ideals and attacked those that impeded them. Married Lucille Duplessis, a teenager, in 1790, with whom he was passionately in love. One son from the union. After the royal family’s abortive flight in 1791, he began to call for the king’s deposition, which resulted in his arrest, although he went into hiding until an amnesty was granted. As a member of the Jacobins, he formed a close working association with Georges Danton (V. Lenin), and was made secretary general under him in the Ministry of Justice, following a popular insurrection that overthrew the monarchy in 1792. Later, as a deputy in the National Convention, he joined the Montagnards in their bitter opposition to the less radical Girondists. Through a his/story he wrote, he helped effect the expulsion of the Girondists, as the Jacobins, under Robespierre, took terrifying control of the Revolution in 1793. Along with Danton, he became the leader of a more moderate faction, who were opposed to the anti-Christian, rabble-rousing Hebertists, led by Jacques Hebert (Joseph Goebbals). Attacked them in a new newspaper, but then overstepped Robespierre’s support by criticizing his own policies, causing the latter to have his newspapers burned. After Robespierre had the leading Hebertists guillotined, it proved his own death sentence and he and Danton were arrested and accused of all sorts of perfidies. Tried and incarcerated, he was deeply depressed by the thought of being separated from his wife, and experienced both regret and rejection of his public life. Met his death with dignity, composure and profound sadness. Inner: Impulsive, passionate, republican with an idealistic overview of government truly responsive to the needs of the masses. Roller-coaster lifetime of integrating his acute verbal skills with the passions of his times, only to ultimately regret his martyrdom at the hands of his far more venal and power-hungry peers. Etienne de La Boetie (1530-1563) - French writer. Outer: From a distinguished family. Received a strict classical education, emphasizing the humanistic aspects of the pre-Christians. Thanks to a facility for their ancient languages, he thoroughly absorbed the past, making translations of a variety of texts from the Greek, while buying wholeheartedly into political free expression. Despite his utopianism, he was a conservative traditionalist, at heart, and so was able to reconcile realities with ideals. As direct witness to the brutality of the government’s suppression of a revolt in Bordeaux, he penned his masterwork, Discours de la Servitude Volontaire, calling for all citizens to rise up against oppression and claim their natural birthright of freedom, among other exhortations. In 1553, he was named counselor in the parliament of Bordeaux, where he met Michel Montaigne (Raymond Aron), and the two became fast friends, finding they shared a love of the wisdom of the ancients, and an abhorrence for the rigidity and dehumanizing effects of modernity. Nevertheless, he discharged his magistrate duties with dignity and diligence, but on an official trip, he became ill. Montaigne came to comfort his beloved friend, and was witness to his premature death, which he bore with stoic fortitude. The former then championed his poetry as well as his works, insuring his remembrance, although he was misread by some as a revolutionary, when he was really a bridgeworker, trying to bring the deep past up to the future, where he felt it once again would live. Inner: Much admired and well-respected. Idealistic, but respectful of institutions, even when he did not totally approve of them. Head in the clouds, but feet on the ground lifetime of returning to the world of thought after a run of rule, and unconsciously transmuting the political foundation he had created for himself, so as to be ready for revolutionary times to come. Charles VII (1403-1461) - King of France. Known as “the Victorious.” Outer: 5th but eldest surviving son of Charles VI (Reza Abdoh), and Isabeau (Eve LeGallienne). Had an unhappy royal childhood, since his father was already mad and his mother was licentious and treacherous. Inherited a kingdom in total disarray, and in dire financial straits because of his family’s incompetence, which almost gave the throne to England. After the Burgundians captured Paris, he escaped to lead the resistance against his mother’s plotting, which had excluded him from the throne, while he wondered about his own legitimacy. In 1422, he married Marie d’Anjou, the daughter of the duke of Anjou, a plain woman. The duo had 14 children, including his successor Louis XI (Adolf Hitler), who continually intrigued against him, causing much misery in the latter part of reign. Inherited the crown the same year he married, but it was in English hands, and he couldn’t fight his way through to get it. Slipped into a state of hypochondria, questioning if he were truly the legitimate heir. Ultimately saved by 17 year old Jeanne d’Arc (Petra Kelly), whom he refused to help, despite her inspiring his troops to victory over the English so that he could be officially crowned in 1429. After her martyred death, he had her reputation rehabilitated. In 1443, the queen was supplanted by his mistress Agnes Sorel (Rebecca West), who bore him 3 more daughters and dominated him, acting as queen in all but name. Felt her death from poisoning deeply in 1450. Initially vacillating and influenced by corrupt favorites, he eventually found his royal bearings. A patron of the arts, and a good administrator, he brought the 100 years war to successful conclusion, and instituted many important reforms. Reorganized the army while establishing heavy taxation to support the government. Reunified the kingdom and left it far more prosperous than when he found it. Died of a tubercular disease of the jawbone. Inner: Solitary, sober, highly intelligent, shy, sickly, gloomy but pleasure/loving. Hypochondriac, very responsive to stimulation of others. Circle of sad beginning and sad ending, but made most of the opportunities given him in between via prudence and surrounding himself with good people. Can-do lifetime of ultimately proving he deserved a shot at the crown, despite personality flaws and a tendency towards apathy, which probably gave him his anti-royalist sentiments in succeeding lives in this series. Alfonso XI (1311-1357) - Spanish king of Castile. Known as “the Just.” Outer: Grandson of Alfonso X (Raymond Aron). His father was the former’s weak-willed son, who lay down one afternoon and never got up. Inherited the throne at the age of one. Mother was the daughter of the king of Portugal. One sister. His grandmother served as regent until her death when he was 10, and 2 years later, he assumed full sovereignty. Although the kingdom had been rife with struggling factions of nobles throughout his minority, he was quickly able to restore a sense of order. Gave more democratic powers to the municipalities and the governing Cortes to strengthen the crown’s position against the nobles, and chose officials without aristocratic connections to create a somewhat more egalitarian state. Fell in love with a young widow, Leonor de Guzman (Rebecca West), of noble birth, who was both beautiful and highly intelligent. The duo had at least 10 children together, including the eventual Henry II, and she was his queen in all but name. he married Constanza Manuel, his double first cousin, in 1328, who was also a daughter of the king of Portugal. The union produced 2 sons, although only the younger, Pedro the Cruel (Joseph Stalin), survived to succeed him. Abandoned his queen after the requisite births of his legitimate heirs, while she brooded in silence over his blatant neglect. Began his reign doing successful battle with the Moors, where the very first cannon may have been used in Europe. Continued an aggressive policy against Morocco, with his forces proving triumphant in 1344. A ten year truce was forged, while he earned his nickname, ‘the Just,’ through his administrative and legal reforms. Both England and France sought him as an ally, but he coyly demurred from any commitment to either. Found a pretext to break the previous truce, and during a siege of Gibraltar, he was struck down by the plague, which was then ravaging Europe. His queen immediately had Leonor arrested and strangled, then persecuted their family unmercifully, only to be put to death by her own father, the king of Portugal, 7 years later for her own extramarital licentious indulgence, in a final tragic circle of the women in his life. Inner: Assertive, strongly reform-minded, and highly effective, with a developed sense of the feminine. Problem-solving lifetime of taming a rigid kingdom, and knowing great love in his private life, but at the expense of his official family, whose cruel barbarity would quickly negate his high-minded household. Leo I (c391-461) - Roman pope. Outer: From an old aristocratic Roman family. Proved a gifted student, with a particular interest in theology, so that the Church became his immediate career. Made a deacon under Pope Celestine I, while showing excellent political instincts, so that his reputation spread outside Rome to the provinces. Sent in 440 to Gaul by the Roman emperor Valentinian III (Ethan Hawke) to settle a dispute between the military commander and chief magistrate of the province. While he was in Gaul, the pope died, and he was selected as his successor. Consecrated the same year, and proved to be an exemplary pontiff over the next two decades, earning him the designation ‘the Great,’ one of the very few to win that honorific appendage to his name. An extremely active pope, he took over at a time when Rome was losing its primacy as well as its ability to defend itself, and proved a perfect antidote to its decline with his aggressive moves. Gave the Church a sense of unity against the various heresies then prevalent, most particularly that of Pelagius who denied original sin and the body as being anything but a repository of natural instincts, which ran totally counter to the basic moral teachings of both Testaments. Proved intractable against the espousers of anything other than orthodox doctrine, including the dualistic Manicheaeans, who were subsequently persecuted for their light and dark apostasies. Worked diligently to raise the educational levels of the clergy, as well as improve the liturgy of the Church, and called for provincial synods to emphasize the acceptance of no other teachings but that of the Christ himself as interpreted by the orthodox church. Tried to unify the provincial bishops of Gaul with Rome, and was able to flex enough muscle to have his way, despite resistance, ultimately showing himself magnanimous when his will was acceded to. Elsewhere, he exercised strict ecclesiastical discipline, seeing the continual infringement of the barbarian Germanic tribes as a threat to Roman moral law and order. Continually wrote letters to his various bishops, urging their maintenance of standards in the face of a world grown lax with its lack of ethical focus. Continually called councils to clarify orthodox beliefs, while also dealing with the schismatic Greek Orthodox church in Constantinople. Personally met with Attila the Hun (Pancho Villa) to dissuade him from marching on Rome in 452, then three years later tried to intercede when the Vandals plundered the city, saving its citizens further degradation, while subsuming the role of the emperor as protector of the Eternal City, in a transference of Rome as a see rather than a state. Built and restored a number of churches, as well as restoring St. Peters. In addition to his persuasive personality, he was a skilled sermonizer, giving voice to an elevated sense of awareness around the primacy of his office in Church affairs. On his death, he was buried in the vestibule of St. Peter’s, and two centuries later his remains were transferred to the basilica itself, beneath a special altar dedicated to him. Inner: Wise, highly articulate, indomitable and extremely systematic. Able to makes the bishop of Rome the primary custodian of the Church, as an exemplar of the Petrine Doctrine, as put forth in the gospels. Energetic shepherd lifetime of earning the sobriquet, ‘the Great,’ as precisely the leader needed at the time he was given the Chair of St. Peter, to underline its supremacy in the Roman Catholic world to come. Favorinus (c80-c150) - Gallic/Roman writer. Outer: A congenital eunuch, he received an excellent Greek education in Marseille. Became one of the leading sophists and rhetoricians of his time, thanks to his learning and eloquence, which he put on papyrus in a goodly number of works, including history and philosophy, although only a fragment of them outlived him. He was also a well-respected teacher, with several noteworthy students going on to bigtime careers in letters and politics. Operated out of the Skeptic tradition, and was a close friend of his fellow Hellenist, Plutarch (Raymond Arons). Taught in several Greek cities, as well as Asia Minor, and also entered the circle of the emperor Hadrian (Charles de Gaulle), winning the rank of equestrian. Around the age of 50, however, he fell out of favor, and was exiled, which he wrote about in gracious terms, although after the death of the emperor, he was invited back to Rome by his successor, and quickly returned to accept his old position and status back. Inner: Desexed lifetime of dwelling largely in the lofty realm of philosophy and academia, with a brief bringing down to earth, which he would be able to turn into more fodder for thought, in an unrelenting go-round of the cerebral.
PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS HERO/TRAITOR:
Storyline: The dualistic warrior follows a rise’n’fall rhythm with his reputation in order to help him off his high horse and see his strengths and failings in the light of his alternate treachery and valor.
Philippe Petain (Henri Philippe Petain) (1856-1951) - French general and statesman. Outer: Parents were peasant farmers. Attended a village school, and then a religious secondary seminary, before being admitted to Saint-Cyr, France’s main military academy. Oddly aristocratic for someone of his humble origins, tall, imposing and coolly aloof with piercing blue eyes. Compulsively seductive, often going after other men’s wives. Shared the rugged outdoor life of his troops early on, which helped him comprehend the viewpoint of the ordinary soldier. Made extremely slow progress up through the ranks, not reaching major and battalion commander until his mid-40s. Became an instructor at the War College in 1906, although his ideas ran counter to the prevailing theories of the time. At the outbreak of WW I, he was a colonel and regimental commander, but his distinguished leadership soon made him a general of brigade and after further successes, particularly at the Battle of the Marne, he was promoted to general of division. Had mixed results in mid-war, coining the phrase, “They shall not pass,” over Verdun. Sick with pneumonia for several weeks, he was still able to organize efficient supply systems, and his coolness under intense strain and pressure held together the French defensive initiative, although he was replaced when his superior felt he was too defense-minded. Assumed command of the French armies in 1917, after an outbreak of mutiny over the army’s offensive failure. Punished the mutinous leaders, but felt that it was the result of a collective lack of discipline, and dealt with soldiers’ grievances, instituting reforms and leaves, then built up the army’s confidence again with thoroughly prepared limited offensives. Played an important role in the last months’ fighting on the Western Front, and following the armistice, he was made a marshal of France. Married Eugenie Hardon, a widow, in 1920, after many a romance earlier on, but rejection by those he truly wished to wed. Appointed vice-president of the Supreme War Council the same year and inspector general of the army 2 years later. Resigned in 1931, then served briefly as Minister of War. Made his preference known for autocratic forms of government, was given the ambassadorship to Spain, then was called back and asked to form a new government in 1940 at the age of 84, as France fell to Germany in the opening salvos of WW II. Surrended immediately, asking for all fighting to cease, even before an armistice was signed, then became the nominal head of the occupied Vichy Government, although his age, and possibly his senility, made him fuzzily acquiesce to his role without fully understanding it. Felt he had to cooperate with the Germans in order to obtain the release of prisoners of war, and set up a paternalistic regime with the motto, “Work, Family and Fatherland.” As a reactionary patriot, he fired his vice premier, Pierre Laval, although he was later forced to take him back in 1942 and serve solely as a neutral figurehead, while secretly supporting French military moves. Arrested by the Germans and taken to Germany. Returned to France in 1945 and was tried for treason and sentenced to death, although Gen. Charles de Gaulle commuted it to life imprisonment, and he died incarcerated, as an aged shell of himself. His body was later dug up in a bit of posthumous mischief, and then reburied. Inner: Quiet, unassuming, aloof, painstaking, a careful planner. Cared for and loved by his men, with more of a sense of his countrymen than his country. Despised politicians and parliamentary procedures, and was a stickler for military protocol. Old school in his strategic thinking, ignoring the mobility of modern armies in favor of strong fortifications of ages past. Rise’n’fall lifetime of once again playing the dual role of hero and traitor, with a very long build-up to his heroic status, before allowing old age and senility to define his traitorous arc downwards, and ultimately leave his life as a bitter aftertaste to WW II. Auguste Marmont (August Frederic Louis Viesse de Marmont) (1774-1852) - French general. Outer: Father was a retired Royalist officer who owned and operated an iron works. Received a good education, attended artillery school and was commissioned at 18. Fought in several different French armies, catching the attention of Napoleon Bonaparte, under whom he served in 1793. After further duty, he was appointed Napoleon’s aide-de-camp in 1796, and distinguished himself in the latter’s Italian campaigns, as he steadily rose in rank. Served with the Army of the Orient and at Malta, took the flag of the Knights of St. John with his own hands, winning his general of brigade star for the feat. Fought at Alexandria in Napoleon’s Egyptian campaign and was appointed governor after the city fell, then was one of the few chosen to return to France with Bonaparte. Took part in the coup that made Napoleon first consul, and was made a councillor of state. Continued his rise under Napoleon, serving as general in various capacities and governor-general of Dalmatia in 1806. After defeating a numerically superior force of Russians near old Raguse, he was made Duke of Ragusa in 1808. Distinguished himself in the war against Austria, winning his marshal’s baton in 1809. Served in Illyria over the next several years, then Portugal, becoming commander of the Army of Portugal in 1812. Outmaneuvered the Duke of Wellington in Spain, although later lost to him through an error of judgment at Salamanca and was wounded by a shell burst. Took almost a year to recover, then fought in Napoleon’s final German campaign, in which the emperor relied heavily upon him. Beaten badly at Laon, he redeemed himself outside of Paris, then was forced to surrender the remnants of his corps, putting an end to Napoleon’s hopes, while abandoning the emperor. On the return of the Bourbon monarchy, he was raised to the peerage and made captain of the king’s bodyguard. Went into exile with the king during Napoleon’s 100 Days, then after Waterloo, was one of the 4 marshals commanding the Royal Guard. Served at Michael Ney’s (Sean Connery) court-martial, voting for the death sentence. Made a minister of state and member of the Privy Council. Briefly served as ambassador to Russia and assisted at the coronation of Czar Nicholas I (Louis B. Mayer). Ordered by Charles X (Charles Pathe) to suppress the July Revolution in 1830, but through his blunders, Paris fell to the rebels, and the king was dethroned. Went into exile, traveled throughout Europe, and settled in Venice, where he wrote his memoirs. Inner: Intelligent commander, capable tactician, strategist and organizer and administrator. Cool and level-headed in battle, although occasionally careless. Never forgiven for betraying Napoleon at the end, and his title ‘Ragusa,’ became a synonym for treason. Black mark lifetime, once again, of playing with the dualities of hero and traitor, and winding up an exile and a stranger in a strange land, despite his earlier martial artistry. Henri, duc de Rohan (1579-1638) - French general. Outer: From one of the most distinguished families of France, father was Count of Rohan. Educated by his mother, who was known as a formidable figure, and well-learned. Although a second son, his older brother died when quite young, making him heir of his father’s title. Appeared at court and entered the army when he was 16. Became a special favorite of the king, Henri IV (FDR), who made him duc de Rohan in 1603, as well as a peer of France. Two years later, he married Marguerite de Bethune, the daughter of the duc de Sully (Saul Williams). Despite his close connection to the royal house, following Henri’s death in 1610, he led a Huguenot rebellion against the queen regent, Marie de Medici (Sara Roosevelt) in 1515-1516. Subsequently made two treaties with Louis XIII (Cecil B. DeMille), but continued as one of the Huguenot’s leading generals in the field, for the latter half of the 1620s, ultimately doing unsuccessful battle with Henri II, duc de Montmorency (Ryan O’Neal). Left France afterwards and lived in Venice for several years, where he penned his thoughts upon himself and his strategies, before returning in 1635, when he was given command of an expedition to drive the Spanish from a strategic Swiss valley. Although he achieved his objective, he failed to win a satisfactory peace, and was driven out by the Swiss, who disliked his pro-French policies. Joined the forces of Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar (Ariel Sharon) in the Rhineland, but was mortally wounded in battle, and died several weeks later. Sang his own praises in his celebrated Memoires, and also wrote a treatise on military theory, called The Complete Captain. Inner: Charming, self-assured and staunchly Protestant. Sword-in-hand lifetime of evincing his ongoing prowess upon the battlefield, before being given a respite from his usual nonstop fighting to contemplate both himself and his strategic initiatives, two arenas which would still need considerable work in his ongoing conflicted desire to be seen as a great general. Louis II (c804-876) - East Frankish King. Known as Louis the German. Outer: 3rd son of Carolingian emperor Louis I (Arthur Seyss-Inquart). Given Bavaria in the division of his father’s empire in 817 and became its official ruler in 825. In 1827, he married Emma of Altdorf, the daughter of a Bavarian count, 3 sons, including Louis the Younger (Joseph Darnand), who succeeded him. Along with his brothers he took part in revolts against his father, and joined his half-brother Charles II (Darryl F. Zanuck) against his other sibling, Lothair’s, inheritance of the entire empire, and elevation to emperor, after their father’s death. Following a treaty twixt the trio in 843, he received the eastern parts of the empire. Along with his son, Louis, he tried to depose Charles, but failed, and ultimately renounced his claims to his territory. After Lothair’s death, he reneged on an agreement and invaded Lotharingia, ultimately gaining more territory west of the Rhine. Divided his territories between his 3 sons, but they disagreed with the partitions, and more revolts ensued. Lost Moravia in a subsequent war, then sought the imperial succession for his line in Italy, but Charles had himself crowned there after his death, at which time, he was preparing for yet another war against his half-brother. Inner: Bellicose and acquisitive in an age that demanded it of its rulers. I want it all lifetime of doing constant battle for territory with his intimate blood relatives, and, in the process, creating the ultimate base for the German states. Flavius Odoacer (c433-493) - German general and king of Italy. Outer: Father was a Scyrian noble of one of the Germanic tribes. Saw his initial military service with Orestes, who had been a secretary to Attila the Hun (Pancho Villa), and was sire to the last of the western Roman emperors, Romulus Augustulus (Max Kennedy). After rising in rank, he convinced his hordes of the weakness of the empire, and demanded a third of Italy as a land of their own in compensation for defending it. When Orestes refused, he marched against his garrisoned city, Pavia, and put the former to death, while Romulus abdicated, ending his house’s hold on the throne of Italy. Subsequently allowed the latter to live quietly in retirement, seeing him as no future threat. Asked the Byzantine emperor Zeno (John Fitzgerald) to be entitled Patricius, under which he would administer Italy in the emperor’s name. After some hesitation on the latter’s part, he was granted his wish in 476, the formal date of the fall of the western empire. Through the vacuum he created, the bishop of Rome became the new father figure to the populace of the Eternal City, giving birth to the medieval papacy. While titling himself rex, he made Ravenna his capital, and gave a third of the mostly depopulated peninsula to his comrades-in-arms. Conquered Dalmatia in 482, while maintaining relative peace in Italy. An Arian who did not believe in the holy trinity, he proved impartial in religious matters, although he was despised by the native Italian people, despite enjoying support by the Roman Senate. Weathered some unrest early in his reign, then, after fully establishing himself, responded to a call to help overthrow Zeno by invading his western provinces. The latter, in turn, encouraged a tribal attack on him by the Rugi, which he successfully put down. Zeno then appointed the Ostrogoth king, Theodoric the Great (Charles de Gaulle) king of Italy to rid himself of their barbarian presence in the eastern empire, and he and his gothic hordes invaded Italy. In their opening rounds in 489, he was beaten and forced to retreat. After losing another battle, he hied to Rome to try to get the city’s inhabitants to join in his defense, although they locked the gates to him. Returned to Ravenna, reassembled his army, and fared better against the advance guard of the Ostrogoths, before being beaten a third time. Walled himself in, in Ravenna, where he was besieged for three years, before capitulating under the proviso that he and Theodoric would share in the kingdom of Italy. The latter readily agreed and invited him, his brother and son to a celebratory banquet, ten days after entering Ravenna. While they were all peacefully gathered, with one stroke of his sword, he cleft him through from his collarbone to his thigh, remarking afterwards, that he didn’t seem to have a bone in his body. Inner: Competent commander, although no match for the superior skills of Theodoric. Payback lifetime of being killed by the former victim of his own assassinatory machinations, after showing himself to be far the lesser martial artist than his earlier adversary. Marcus Junius Brutus (85-42BZ) - Roman tyrannicide. Outer: Had the same name as his father, who was slain by Pompey (Henry Luce) in 77BZ in a rebellion. Later was adopted by an uncle, taking the alternate name of Quintus Caepio. His mother, Servilia, was an ambitious noblewoman who wielded considerable political influence through her stepbrother, Cato (George Marshall) and later through her son, who married Cato’s daughter, Porcia. At one time she had a liaison with Julius Caesar (Charles de Gaulle), then after he rejected her, bitterly opposed him. Pursued a political career, serving as a quaestor, or magistrate. At the outbreak of the Civil War in 49 BZ, between Pompey and Julius Caesar, he joined the forces of the former, despite his mother’s hatred of him. Probably was following his own republican instincts in the choice. Pardoned by the latter the following year, after the death of Pompey. Appointed governor of Cisalpine Gaul in 46 and made city praetor 2 years later. Won admiration for his moral integrity and patriotism, while proving both able and popular in all his posts. Resented Caesar’s dictatorial rule, preferring the republican form of government prior to his assuming power. Joined the plot of Gaius Cassius Longinus (Joseph Darnand) to assassinate Caesar, becoming its figurehead so that his prestige also attracted several dozen other senators to the conspiracy. Wielded his own long knife, and was singled out with Caesar’s surprised rejoinder, “Et tu, Brute,” when he helped assassinate him, although the quote is questionable and may be the product of Shakespearean fantasy. Forced out of Italy within a month of the act, through popular resentment and the growing influence of Marc Antony (Marquis de Lafayette), but was voted a proconsular command by the Senate over the Balkan provinces. Along with Cassius, he led the republican resistance to the second triumvirate of Octavian (FDR), Marc Antony and Marcus Lepidus (Bernard Baruch), building up a powerful republican presence in the east against them. Defeated by Octavian and Antony at Philippi, after an earlier victory, he realizing his cause was lost, and committed suicide. As a Stoic, he wrote a number of philosophical treatises as well as other works. Inner: Admired by his peers for his dignity and idealism, but proved extortionate in his dealings away from Rome. Dagger-in-hand lifetime of acting out of republican ideals, only to not only undo himself, but also to pick up some sticky kismet, which would not resolve over the next two millennia.
PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS MYOPIC TRAITOR:
Storyline: The opaque opportunist never quite sees his limitations because of his overweening ambition, and continually leads himself or is led to dire consequences, without ever coming to grips with his consistent ability to misread political realities.
Pierre Laval (1883-1945) - French statesman and traitor. Outer: Grandfather was an illiterate shepherd, while his father was a village butcher and an unsuccessful innkeeper. Learned to socialize as a child at the latter, which gave him his amiable, nonthreatening and winning personality. Showed himself to be a brilliant student and won a scholarship to the Univ. of Lyon, where he studied zoology, before getting a law degree. Chubby, small and olive-skinned. Joined the Socialist Party at the age of 20, and became a lawyer in Paris in 1909, winning a reputation for defending leftists and trade unionists. Drafted, although released because of varicose veins prior to the world war, which he initially opposed and then supported. Elected a provincial deputy in 1914, he urged a negotiated peace to end WW I, then was defeated for re-election. Married Marguerite Claussat, a doctor’s daughter, but his wife rarely appeared in public, one daughter from the union. Grew rich without explanation by munitions supplies in WW I, and currency speculation. Left the Socialist Party in 1920, and was elected mayor of Aubervilliers in 1923, holding the post for almost 20 years. Re-elected deputy in 1924, and 3 years later he became a senator. Held several governmental posts, and was largely responsible for the passage of the Social Insurance Act, which led to his becoming premier in 1931. Showed a disregard for his underlings, particularly in foreign affairs, and he was defeated for re-election the following year. After several more ministerial posts, he became premier again in 1935, but both his foreign and domestic economic policies were failures, and he fell the following year. In 1940, he entered Henri Petain’s Vichy government, and persuaded the Assembly to dissolve itself, thus ending the Third Republic. Felt positive Germany was going to win WW II, and saw collaboration as the best route for France in the depraved new world that would follow the war. Began negotiations to that effect, arousing the displeasure and distrust of one and all, and was dismissed by year’s end. In 1942, he returned as head of government, and continued in a collaborative mode, supplying German industry with French workers, while announcing in a speech that he wished for a German victory, although he tried to protect French interests in his negotiations with the occupying Nazi government. Held on to basic food supplies, and tried to keep some semblance of order to his charge, so that his interests were usually in terms of French needs. As French resistance grew stronger, his own position grew weaker, and when Germany collapsed, he fled to Spain to prepare for his inevitable trial, before returning in July of 1945. Received no sympathy from either the court or its spectators, and, after trying to poison himself with cyanide, only to be saved by a doctor, he was executed by firing squad as a traitor two weeks later. Inner: Homely manners, careless dresser, heavy smoker, bad teeth. Initially had some semblance of social justice, but ambition ultimately over/rode it, as well as a distinct gift for misreading the times, an ongoing trait of his. Used astrology in his decision-making, and was an improviser at heart. Traitorous lifetime of harboring a myopic view of his own abilities, as well as his country’s strengths and deficiencies, and paying for it with both his life and his reputation. Louis, duc d’Enghien (Louis-Antoine-Henri de Bourbon-Condé, duc d’Enghien) (1772-1804) - French prince and martyr. Outer: Only son of the princely household of the duc de Bourbon, mother was from the House of Orleans. His parents separated when he was six, and he was privately educated, showing a warlike disposition. Began his military career at the age of 16, and, at the outbreak of the French Revolution, he emigrated with his father and served in his grandfather’s émigré army from 1792 until 1801, showing himself valorous in battle. Secretly married Charlotte de Rohan and settled at Ettenheim in the German state of Baden. After a false report given to Napoleon Bonaparte in 1804 that a conspiracy was afoot to overthrow him, the dictator had him arrested, when French police secretly crossed the Rhine to kidnap him. Brought to the castle of Vincennes near Paris, he was summarily court-martialed and shot within the space of a few hours, an act that occasioned outrage throughout Europe, although Napoleon always felt self-justified over the deed, despite using it as a pretext to raise himself from consul to emperor. Ignominiously ended the line of the princely House of Condé. Inner: Recompense lifetime of being on the wrong end of the emperor’s paranoia, while paying for continual plotting of lives past. Henri Cinq-Mars (1620-1642) - French royal conspirator. Outer: His father was a marquis and marshal, who died when he was 12. Cardinal Richielieu (Henry Kissinger), a close friend of his sire, took the boy under his protection and introduced him to Louis XIII (Cecil B. DeMille), who made him his favorite, giving him the title of “master of the robes.” Although the king was devoted to him, the querulous lad continually provoked quarrels with him, which ended in fawning reconciliations. His extravagance and arrogance, however, deeply disturbed the Cardinal, who decided to get rid of him. Entered into a failed plot against the latter, but his role was hidden, so that he did not suffer punishment for it when it was revealed. Concocted a grander scheme, involving high-ranking nobles, including the king’s brother, Gaston d’Orleans, and conspired with France’s enemy, Spain, whose king, Felipe IV (Walt Disney) promised to support the rebellion with arms and troops, via a secret treaty. The treaty, however, found its way to Richielieu, who exposed the plot. Convicted of treason and summarily beheaded. Inner: Selfish and grasping, with little real feel for playing with power at its highest levels. Scheming lifetime of being hoisted on his own plotting petard, in his ongoing saga of power denied, despite pretensions of potential glorious leadership. Boniface VIII (Benedetto Gaetani) (c1235-1303) - Italian pope. Outer: Of Spanish origin, albeit long established in Italy. Related to three popes through his mother’s powerful house of Segni. Younger son of the minor nobility, which destined him for a church career. Sent to a monastery where his uncle was a friar, and in his teens he became a canon of his hometown cathedral. When his uncle Pietro Gaetani became Bishop of Todi, he accompanied him and began his legal studies there. Continued them in Spoleto and mayhaps Paris, ultimately receiving a doctorate in canon and civil law. Made a canon in both Italy and France, and, in 1276, entered the Curia, where he accrued considerable influence through his legal activities. In 1281, he was created Cardinal-Deacon, and a decade later Cardinal-Priest, while serving in both France and Sicily as a papal legate, gaining the reputation in some circles as the greatest jurist of his time. His predecessor, Celestine V, an unworldly monk, abdicated his unwanted role as pope in 1294, the only pontiff to have done so, and he was elected to replace him, taking on the name Boniface VIII. Some felt he exerted undo pressure on Celestine to vacate the papacy, although he vigorously denied the charge. Immediately revoked all the favors his predecessor had generously bestowed. Early the next year, he headed for Rome for his consecration and coronation, in a display worthy of a monarch. Immediately incurred the wrath of the Italian religious parties, who saw a potential schism if Celestine were allowed his freedom. Had the latter brought to Rome, although he escaped to his hermitage, before being corralled and escaping again, only to be ultimately apprehended and detained in an impossibly narrow space in a castle, which probably hastened his death the next year, and fed into suspicions he had been poisoned. Felt the papacy should reign supreme in the arenas of both civil and ecclesiastical law, but, despite, his experience in both realms, failed to see the resistance that would be put up to his meddling in affairs that lay outside the religious realm. Took over the papacy at a point where no major wars were fought on European soil for a century, other than the Albigensian crusade, and failed to excite any kind of Christian coalition against the Turks, since the continental focus had been on economics, rather than martial engagement. Rather than further empower the papacy, his nine year run of office signaled the Chair of St. Peter’s medieval decline. Tried to arbitrate some kind of peace between Genoa and Venice, in their commercial wars, but failed, as did his efforts in Florence and Tuscany over their opposing political parties. Won the eternal enmity of poet Dante (Ezra Pound) for his blundering, and was placed in the eighth circle of Hell in his “Divine Comedy,” as a simonist. Further interference with Italian politics, caused him to withdraw from Rome in 1297, and do fierce battle with the Colonna clan. Protested mightily against royal taxation of the clergy by both the English and French kings, Edward I (JFK) and Philippe IV (Joe Biden), showing a remarkably bellicose obtuseness around the limits of papal power, despite issuing numerous Bulls to the contrary. Enjoyed a respite from his problems in 1300, with the celebration of the Jubilee, taking full advantage of the festivities and the influx of 200,000 pilgrims to Rome, to give full display of the power of the Vicar of Christ, although no kings came to pay homage to him. France under Philippe continued to challenge his papacy on all levels, with the intent of reducing his office to a purely spiritual patriarchate, with no temporal powers whatsoever, while he remained an unpopular figure with the French clergy, due to his sarcasm and judgmental reaction to them. Threatened to excommunicate Philippe and also ordered all French prelates to Rome, only to see himself called a false pope and heretic, as well as being accused of a host of crimes, as an assembly was summoned in Paris, with most French clerics siding with the king in the accusations, which were further limned in royal letters to the various princes, cardinals and bishops of Europe. Declared his innocence while threatening Philippe with the severest of punishments, only to see his papal palace attacked by a band of mercenaries under the auspices of both Philippe and the Colonna. The palace was plundered, with its archives destroyed, at which juncture, he ascended his throne, clad in his papal raiment, willing to face a martyr’s death. Instead, he was spared, and held as prisoner, before being rescued by his fellow Agnani townsmen. Returned to Rome with a contingent of four hundred horsemen, after pardoning several of those captured by the townsmen, save for those who had plundered Church property. Died of a violent fever soon afterwards, and was buried during a violent storm as symbol of his pontificate. Inner: Skilled lawyer and administrator, and patron of the fine arts, but, as always, lacking in larger vision, and far too taken with his elevated office to be effective in it. Wanted no more than previous popes, in his desire to retake the Holy Land and to have Europe at peace with itself, but his inflated sense of power obviated his various gifts. His facility for deeply offending the poets of his time also insured his consignment to the papacy’s eternal hall of shame. Eighth circle of hell lifetime of misreading his times and his powers, per his usual inability to see his limitations, which would send him on a further spiral ever downward in his desperate desire to affect his times, no matter the consequences. Louis IV (893-911) - East Frankish king. Known as “Louis the Child.” Outer: Son of the East Frankish King Arnulf (Avigdor Lieberman). Made heir to the throne when he was 5, and 3 years later, following his father’s death, he was crowned. The Lotharingians defeated his half-brother in an uprising the same year, and declared him their sovereign as well. The actual government was controlled by a German archbishop, Hatto of Mainz (Francois Mitterand), so that he remained king in name only, and over the next decade, his realm proved porous to continuous Magyar raids, while Hatto served as his tutor, guardian and regent. After a devastating defeat in 910, his power was all but usurped by local magnates, and he died the following year, ending the Carolingian line on the Frankish throne. Inner: Weak seed lifetime of ending a line, before repeatedly returning to prove over and over his reaching grasp far exceeds his abilities. Servilius Casca (Publius Servilius Casca Longus) (?-c42BZ) - Roman politician and tyrannicide. Outer: Along with his brother, Gaius Servilius Casca, joined in the assassination plot against Julius Caesar (Charles de Gaulle), by his political enemies in the Senate, when it was feared his power had grown too great. Delivered the first blow, by striking him from behind and stabbing him in the upper shoulder near his neck, which elicited the astonished rejoinder, “Casca, you villain, what is this?” Caesar then grabbed his arm and stabbed him with a pen, unaware of the depth of the attack, while he called for help, and the other senatorial conspirators swarmed the dictator and killed him, with each of those who surrounded him trying to stab him in turn, until he lay dead on the senatorial floor, while several of his assassins inadvertently wounded one another. Fled Rome afterwards, losing his office of tribune, and joined Marcus Junius Brutus (Philippe Petain) and Gaius Cassius Longinus (Joseph Darnand) in exile. Following the final battle between the avengers of Caesar’s death and the assassins, at Philippi in Macedonia, he, along with the other two, committed suicide. Inner: Conspiratorial lifetime of beginning a longtime pattern of being on the wrong side of his/story, along with his confreres, in his ongoing confusion around true power and his delusional relationship with it.
PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS SELF-ASSURED BUT INCOMPETENT BRAVEHEART:
Storyline: The voluble general does not seem to recognize his limitations, and continually overextends his limited tactical abilities to the detriment of his larger causes, while shrugging off his many wounds as the price he pays for his greatness on the battlefield.
Joseph Darnand (1897-1945) - French soldier and collaborationist. Outer: From a family of modest means. Father was a railway man. Raised in a traditional Catholic household, and after schooling, initially worked as a baker in a psychiatric hospital. Joined an infantry regiment in WW I, during which time he was given six citations for bravery, and ultimately rose to the rank of under-lieutenant, extending his term of service until 1921. Married the following year, with two children, a daughter who died young and a son who became a professor. Worked as a cabinet-maker afterwards, before founding his own transportation company in Nice, while also joining several right-wing paramilitary organizations. Awarded the Legion d’honneur in 1927 for his WW I service. Formed his own fascist unit in the 1930s, and participated in bombings and assassinations against perceived Bolshevik threats, while collecting and storing arms. Reconscripted, he served in the Maginot Line at the outset of WW II, once more showing his valor in battle. After being captured in June of 1940, he escaped and fled to Nice, before becoming a central figure in the Vichy French Legion of Veterans, where he continued his fight against the Red Menace. In 1941, he founded the Service d’ordre legionnaire, a militia that supported the Vichy government of Philippe Petain, and did battle with the various French resistance .groups. The organization, which had German backing, became the Milice in 1943, and he served as its chief of operations, while being allowed to recruit throughout France. Came to despise the Germans, although not the Nazis, and tried to join the Resistance, although his far right views made him suspect, and he was refused thrice. Also tried to flee French territory, but failed to do so. Made an officer of the SS in 1943, and swore allegiance to Adolf Hitler, while overseeing executions of resistance fighters that the Germans caught. By year’s end, he was head of police and later secretary of state for internal affairs for the Vichy government, while steadily expanding the Milice. Forced to flee to Germany following the Allied invasion of Normandy, joining Petain and Pierre Laval in their government in exile. Fought against the partisans in Italy, where he was eventually captured after the war by the Allies and returned to France. Tried by the French High Court, found guilty of treason, and executed by firing squad, along with Pierre Laval. Inner: Harbored extreme right wing antidemocratic and anti-semitic sentiments, and was more than willing to act them out. Underground warrior lifetime of serving a questionable state in violent manner, in his own introduction to sub rosa warfare, after many a go-round of traditional combat for orthodox armies. Claude-Martin Lecomte (1817-1881) - French general. Outer: Early life ill-recorded. Joined the army and rose through the officer ranks, becoming a colonel in 1865, before being elevated to general of brigade in 1870, during the Franco-Prussian War. As part of the army of the North he took part in several key battles, in which French forces were forced to retreat, leading to their unequivocal defeat. Also took part in the siege of Paris. After the emperor capitulated, he returned to Paris, and was made the provisional head of a brigade of the new army of Paris, while being named director of a military academy in the city of Fleche. Before he could leave to take his post, however, the Paris Commune arose in March of 1871, in reaction to the war’s aftermath and the alienated sense of displaced disconnection of the city’s workers, who now wished a democratic republic of urban self-government in lieu of the fall of the empire. The government feared that if the Commune gained control of the city’s cannons, a repeat of the French Revolution might occur. The acting premier ordered troops to seize large weaponry around the city, although a considerable amount of fraternizing was going on among the various opposing factions. As head of the Montmartre sector, he ordered his troops to fire on the rebels, both civilians and guardsmen alike, and they refused. Instead, he was dragged off his horse, and, along with another general who had been a former commander of the National Guard, executed by firing squad. Inner: Ready, aim fire lifetime of falling victim to the anarchy of righteous republicanism, which would feed into his extreme right-wing views in his succeeding life in this series, where he would, nevertheless, exit in precisely the same manner. Guillaume Brune 1763-1815) - French marshal. Outer: Father was a lawyer. Initially worked as both a printer and a writer in Paris, where he fell under the spell of republicanism, and met several of the leading players in the upcoming French Revolution. Joined the National Guard in 1789 and was elected captain, and by 1793, had been promoted to general of brigade, with the Army of the North. Acted as commissaire for purges in the army, then oversaw a camp which terrorized the citizens of Bordeaux. Served with Napoleon under the Directory of Paris, and distinguished himself in Italy, so that the latter recommended him as general of division in 1797. Had a mixed battlefield record over the next several years, but was given the command of several armies, only to show his deficiencies in Napoleon’s Italian campaign in 1800. Nevertheless, he was made councillor of state in 1801, then ambassador to Turkey before being appointed a marshal and grand officer of the Legion d’Honneur in 1804. More positions and commands followed until a foul-up on his part in 1807, and his vociferous expression of republican sentiments, caused Napoleon to relieve him, and he remained out-of-favor until the emperor fell in 1814. On the latter’s return in 1815, he renounced his support of the royal house, and was given another command, and made peer of France. When Napoleon fell a final time, he surrendered, and on his way to Paris, he was cornered by an angry mob, who accused him of taking part in several high-ranking murders during the Terror of 1793, although he had only been a military escort at the time. He was subsequently torn to pieces by the enraged mob, and as he died, he cried, “Good God! To survive a hundred fields and die like this...” What was left of him was thrown into the Rhone River. ‘A la Brune’ would eventually become the French equivalent of “all fouled up.” Inner: Brave, aggressive and disciplined but rapacious. Once again, out of his depth, the further he rose in command. Torn to pieces lifetime of falling victim to a terror he once supported, while proving himself a far better soldier than tactician and strategist, an ongoing failing of his. Gaspard II de Coligny (1519-1572) - French general and admiral. Outer: From a noble Burgundian family. Father of the same name had served in the Italian wars, and was made a Marshal of France three years before his son’s birth. Mother was the sister of Constable Anne de Montmorency (Richard Harris). One of three sons, all of whom fought in the subsequent Wars of Religion. Came to court in his early 20s, where he became friends with Francois de Lorraine, the duc de Guise (Marquis de Lafayette). Fought with distinction and was knighted on the battlefield in 1544 during the Italian wars. After his uncle returned to favor, he was appointed colonel-general of the French infantry in 1547, showing himself to be an adept military reformer. Married Charlotte de Laval, a 17 year old from a powerful Brittany family, the same annum. 2 sons and a daughter from the union, with both of the former fashioning strong military careers. Made governor of Paris in 1551, and then admiral of France, a quasi-political post, the following annum. Continued his martial career, and after Spanish forces stormed St. Quentin a town he had defended, he wound up imprisoned, at which point, he became a Huguenot, thanks to his brother’s influence. Released on ransom in 1559, he refashioned himself as a voice of religious toleration, in a time of heavy conflict. Secretly sponsored a colony of Huguenots, that were sent to Brazil under the leadership of a close cohort, as well as another one in Spanish Florida, although both enterprises ultimately failed. On the death of Henri II (Robert Downey, Jr.), he joined the Great Condé (Yul Brynner) as leader of the Huguenot cause, winning the enmity of his former friend, Guise. Had a mixed martial record during the next decade, and with the death of Condé, he became the nominal head of the Protestant armies. Married a second time to a countess, following his first wife’s death, one daughter from union. Wounded in a retreat at decade’s end, he marched north to threaten Paris, which initiated a temporary peace twixt the two sides in the ongoing War of Religions. Returned to court, with Charles IX (Rajiv Gandhi) now king, and found favor with him. Subsequently wounded in the right hand and elbow by an arquebus ball in an assassination attempt on the street, and, at the instigation of Catherine de’ Medici (Indira Gandhi), he became a victim of the infamous St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, when his house was attacked by agents of the crown and he was stabbed repeatedly by a servant of Guise, before his body was unceremoniously thrown out a window, into the courtyard below. Had his papers burned afterwards, including a his/story he had written of the religious wars. Inner: Brave and cool in crises. Basically a moderate who was always willing to negotiate. Recompense lifetime of ultimately falling victim to the blades of others after a full go-round of battle glory, in order to balance out an ancient high profile perfidy. Louis III (c830-882) - East Frankish king. Known as ‘Louis the Younger’. Outer: One of 3 sons of Louis II (Henri Petain). Mother was Bavarian. On orders of his father, he invaded Aquitaine, in the hopes that the magnates there would give him the crown of that kingdom. A foul-up ensued, and the Aquitanians abandoned support of him, forcing him to return to Bavaria. Married, although his wife and children are unknown. After his father’s death in 876, East Francia was divided between him and his two brothers, and he received a considerable amount of territory in Saxony, per arrangements his sire had earlier made, and the same year, he defeated the forces of the French king, who had eyes on his father’s earlier territory of Lotharingia. Able to add to his domains through subsequent military victories at the expense of the West Frankish kingdoms. At his death, his brother Charles became sole heir of the kingdom. Inner: Conquering lifetime of expanding on the territories given him, although leaving little as a permanent legacy other than his transient triumphs. Gaius Cassius Longinus (?-42BZ) - Roman senator and tyrannicide. Outer: Little known of his early life. Served as a quaestor, or magistrate for Marcus Crassus (John D. Rockefeller) in Syria, and despite a defeat of the Roman forces, was able to rally its remnants to military victory. Became a tribune, and in the Roman Civil War, fought on the side of Pompey (Henry Luce), but was forgiven by Julius Caesar (Charles de Gaulle), who made him one of his legates. Rose under Caesar to become a praetor, and then a consul designate. Because of disappointments, he became a leading instigator to assassinate Caesar, and was forced to leave Italy afterwards for Syria, in 44 B.Z., along with his parallel co-conspirator, Marcus Junius Brutus (Henri Petain). Successfully raised an army and defeated the Caesarian force there. Fell afoul of the Second Triumvirate, however, and was defeated in battle by the armies of Octavian (FDR) and Marc Antony (Marquis de Lafayette), after which, he had his freedman kill him. Inner: Good soldier, but vain and ambitious politician. Strong temper, sharp tongue, also an interest in literature and culture. Darkside lifetime of an unintegrated struggle for power, evincing both his gifts and failings, which he would continue to explore.
PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS SELF-DESTRUCTIVE DESIGNER:
Storyline: The newly-clothed emperor brings his panache and style into the modern age with all his old flair, but cannot shake his magnetic draw towards assassination, either through his own ineluctable draws or the crazed designs of others.
Gianni Versace (1947-1997) - Italian fashion designer. Outer: Mother was a successful dressmaker, father ran a methane-supply company, selling appliances, and often traveling, so that he was far less a presence in the house. Middle of 3 surviving children, with an older sister dying at 12 from tetanus. Spent his childhood playing in his mother’s shop, with his life’s direction clearly geared towards her craft. At 9, he designed his first dress. Got his later inspirations from the Greek and Roman ruins where he grew up in southern Italy. Studied architectural design, before becoming an apprentice to his mother after high school. Never had any formal training, and relied, instead, on his own showy instincts. In his mid-20s, he moved to Milan, and did freelance designs for several clothing manufacturer, before going out on his own in 1978, with his own line of ready-to-wear designs. His boutique quickly became a family affair with his is older brother, Santo, as his accountant, and his younger sister, Donatella, from whom he was inseparable, as one of his designers. At the same time, he began a collaboration with American photographer Richard Avedon who would go on to do all his catalogues as well as co-author several books with him. Had a fascination with pop culture, taught himself English by listening to pop songs, and realized early on that the cult of personality and over-the-top lifestyles were intimately entwined with fashion. Created spectaculars around his fashion shows, wedding entertainment with couture, employing supermodels, rock music and a lush sensuality to his designs that were geared towards celebrating the sexuality of their adorners, while peopling his audience with celebrities, and opening up fashion to mass cultural appeal. Pursued an equally opulent lifestyle, with 4 homes in Italy, Miami and New York, each more excessive than the other, while sharing 3 of them with his two siblings. Expanded his billion dollar design empire to include ostentatious accessories, china, leather goods, home furnishings and perfumes. Also designed for operas. Openly homophile and a hero to those who revered his ‘if you’ve got it, flaunt it,’ credo. For the last fifteen years of his life, his main squeeze was Antonio D’Amico, a model who became a designer for his company. Traveled incessantly for inspiration, while appearing on everybody’s A-list who had the wherewithal to party with the rich and famous. His Miami Beach mansion would cement that enclave’s reputation as a same-sex mecca, with his house as its epicenter. Developed a rare cancer in his left ear in 1993, and never quite recovered from its aftereffects. The collections of his last few years became more conservative and demure, while his billion dollar company had to be placed on an austerity budget, and his own overspending caused his brother to take away his credit cards. Slowed down at the end, with a sense he had lived his life to the fullest. Had one final spectacular show, then, 8 days later, was shot to death point blank in the face and in the neck, on the steps of his opulent Miami Beach house. His self-appointed executioner was Andrew Cunanan, a fellow homophile, who had gone on a cross-country killing spree prior to gunning him down. Died shortly after in a hospital, while Cunanan killed himself eight days later on a nearby houseboat, by shooting himself in the mouth. After being cremated, he had a celebrity-studded memorial mass in Italy, while his company remained largely in family hands. Inner: Celebrator of life, bon vivant, born showman, and shrewd marketeer. If-you’ve-got-it-flaunt-it lifetime of celebrating himself and bringing his own special blend of high and low taste to a drab world, which he briefly brightened, before once again flaming out to a bizarre shadow who has stalked him through the centuries, and who he has yet to integrate into his flamboyant character. Paul Poiret (1879-1944) - French designer. Outer: Father was a cloth merchant, with a finely developed aesthetic, collecting art within his budget. Lived with his three sisters above his sire’s shop. The family also had a country house, where he explored his creativity by fashioning antiques from iron and junk and also constructed fountains. When his sisters contracted scarlet fever, he was sent away to boarding school, although was unhappy there. Developed an interest in fashion, and upon graduation, he was sent by his father to an umbrella maker to learn the trade, which he hated. Continued to pursue fashion, and after selling some designs to a dress house, he became a draftsman for designer Jacques Doucet in 1896, where he also worked on costumes for the theater. Established a name for himself, thanks to the enthusiastic support of his employer, although his strong sense of independence eventually caused strains twixt the two, as well as with his father. Left the Maison Doucet and was recruited into the army, spending the next year in military service, before completing his apprenticeship with the Maison Worth, where he began designing for the general public, rather than just high-society, with an eye towards ‘female elegance.’ In 1904, he opened his own fashion shop with financial help from his mother, and won modest renown as a highly innovative craftsman, although a dishonest bookkeeper initially stole from him. Worked out of his own home, which was not done at the time. After numerous love affairs, he married Denise Poiret (Allegr Versace) , a country girl he had known as a child, and she became his muse, often traveling with him, to expand his sense of the arts, and serving as his inspiration. Five children from the union. Extremely original, he was subsequently credited with the modern brassiere, as well as the suspender belt, culottes and flesh-colored stockings, in his deliberate freeing of women from the binding clothing of the period. Also came up with the first sheath and sack dresses. Employed vibrant primary colors in his creations, rather than the predominating soft shades of the time, and used the rose as his predominating symbol, while becoming the first couturier to create his own perfume, naming it after his oldest daughter, Rosine. In 1909, he commissioned artist Raoul Dufy to design both textile patterns and stationery for him, while he remained an enthusiastic promoter of his own work, touring European capitals with his designs. Established a school of decorative art, Martine, in 1912, for young artistic women from working-class backgrounds in order to tap into their imaginative innocence, and served as a mentor to them, while utilizing their innovative designs in his workshop. At the outset of WW I, he was called into the service again, and after being released in 1917, he spent some time in Morocco to expunge his war experience. Extremely social, as well as theatrical, he threw lavish parties and held plays featuring his designs, while also opening his own shop, which he also called Martine, and promoting the careers of several actresses, while also promoting himself through them via the costumes he designed. Lived like an eastern potentate, with exotic animals, i a showcase of his outsized personality. Despite his self-acknowledged brilliance, he outlived his times, and by the late 1920s, his career was all but over, thanks to looking backwards, instead of forwards for his inspiration. Divorced in 1928, he went bankrupt in 1929, and wound up living off of the largess of friends for the last decade or so of his life, having squandered the considerable fortune that he made. Ultimately died in poverty. Called his royal auto-hagiography King of Fashion. Inner: Highly original, flamboyant and incandescent, with an unerring eye for design and an equal gift for self-promotion. Tailored lifetime of following his usual trajectory of early brilliance and later flame-out, while finding his true metier as a couturier, which he would continue to pursue to great effect, before once again attracting the demons of self-destruction, which still haunt him after these many centuries. Beau Brummel (George Bryan Brummel) (1778-1840) - English fashion plate. Outer: Grandfather was a shopkeeper who let lodgings to the aristocracy. Father was private secretary to British politician Lord North, and ultimately became high sheriff of Berkshire. Mother was the daughter of the keeper of the lottery office. Youngest of 3 children of an upwardly mobile family. Extremely aware of fashion through his early contact with wealthy lords and ladies through his contacts with the Whig aristocracy. Educated at Eton, where he was very popular and known as ‘Buck’ Brummel for his flamboyant personality and wit. Also showed himself to be an adept student, with a facility for penning Latin verse, although his early sensitivity and sensiblities would be blunted by his later naked pursuit of pleasure. Went to Oriel College, Oxford, for a term, before receiving £20,000 from his father’s estate on the latter’s death in 1794. Became a close friend of the prince regent, the future George IV (Warren Beatty), who commissioned him a cornet in his own regiment, the 10th Hussars. Rose to the rank of captain before retiring in 1798. In 1799, he inherited £30,000, and used it to make himself a fashion leader in London, thanks to his own innate sense of taste and style and his friendship with the Prince of Wales. Enjoyed a prominent place in society, while his dandified ways marked him as leader of an immaculately dressed gang who continually celebrated the pleasures of the city. Never a fop, he pursued moderation, was extremely fastidious, had a gift for quaint turns of phrase and possessed a great deal of social aplomb. Credited with introducing the modern suit, replete with knotted necktie.although his reckless gambling and extravagance eventually exhausted his inheritance. Too witty for his own good, he eventually alienated the Prince, with an offhand remark referring to his weight, and fell into heavy debt. Forced to flee to Calais in order to escape his creditors, he struggled for the next 14 years, never getting out of debt. For 2 years, he served as the British consul at Caen but in 1835, he was imprisoned for debt. Rescued by friends, who gave him a small income, as he dove into a downward spiral, no longer caring about how he looked. Eventually reduced himself to slovenliness, disease, filth and decrepitude while living in fantasies about the past, and holding phantom receptions for society figures of old. After 2 attacks of paralysis, he was placed in a charitable asylum in Caen, where he eventually died from the effects of syphilis, disconnected from any reality save his internal one. Inner: Prince of surfaces, cool, impudent and self-possessed. Witty, bon vivant, charismatic, highly social, with an innate sense of style. Extremely hygienic, bathing every day. Complete circle lifetime of creating a unique niche for himself, only to fall victim of his own excesses, and ultimately lose contact with his unique sense of surface to plunge into his unintegrated interior, becoming the complete opposite of who he once was. Philippe I d’Orleans (Philippe I, duc d’Orleans) (1640-1701) - French noble. Known as “Monsieur.” Outer: Son of Louis XIII (Michael Bay) and Anne of Austria (Gloria Swanson), who encouraged him to dress as a woman, from a young age. As younger brother of Louis XIV (Charles de Gaulle), he was given a relatively lax education, in contrast to his sibling, who was raised specifically to rule. Remained obsequious to Louis his entire life, showing a deep ingrained respect for the throne. Small and handsome, with foppish tastes, he sported high-heeled shoes and feminine accessories, as well as jewelry, rings, and ribbons, while dousing himself in perfumes, and affecting rouge for facial color. Succeeded his uncle, Gaston, as duc d’Orleans in 1660, while his sexual inclinations were encouraged to discourage any rivalry for the crown. The following year, he married his cousin, Henrietta Anne (Jodie Foster), the sister of Charles II (Peter O’Toole) of England, but was far more interested in men than women, and scandalized the court with a series of homophile relationships, with the primary emotional connection of his life with the Chevalier de Lorraine. Three daughters from the strained union, with the two who survived becoming queens respectively of Spain and Sardinia, while their one son died at 2. After his wife passed on from peritonitis quite suddenly in 1670, further scandal was accrued to his name, which he tried to ameliorate by marrying Elizabeth Charlotte, the daughter of the German Elector Palatinate. One short-lived son, as well as a son and daughter from the union, which soon devolved into separate bedrooms. Despite his libidinous ways, he proved himself to be a brave and valiant soldier, distinguishing himself in the Spanish Netherlands during 2 successive wars there, winning an important victory over William of Orange (Lyndon Johnson) in 1677. Because the king was jealous over his military successes, he refused to give him any more commands. Concentrated on expanding his estates and his considerable art collection for the latter part of his life, before suffering a stroke and dying from it, following a rare argument with his brother, the king. Succeeded by his son, Philippe II (Boris Yeltsin), from his 2nd marriage, who proved to be equally libidinous as he, although more traditional in his liaisons. Genuinely missed by certain elements of the court after his death, for the bonhomie he brought, although disliked by others for his excessive ways. Inner: Literal gay blade, unafraid of flaunting his sexuality. Had a kindly character and a royal sense of self, as well as a natural dignity that valued royal prerogatives. Also quarrelsome, peevish and mistrustful, showing a distinct duality of character. Avoided the sun for fear of his complexion, and loved all things feminine, despite being a thorough soldier on the battlefield. Very attuned to etiquette and ceremony, and an accomplished social dancer. Rococo lifetime of acting out within the royal domain, without having to deal with affairs of state, only affairs of the loins and heart. Henri III (1551-1589) - King of France. Outer: Last of the Valois-Orleans line. 3rd son of Catherine de’ Medici (Indira Gandhi) and Henri II (Robert Downey, Jr.), and clearly his mother’s favorite. Given command of the royal army against the Protestant Huguenots, and defeated 2 skilled leaders. Succeeded his older brother, Charles IX (Rajiv Gandhi) in 1574, after being elected King of Poland the previous year. Fled from Poland to take up French residence and was crowned in 1575, although the crown hurt him at his coronation. 2 days later, he married Louise de Vaudemont (Donatella Versace), a princess of the powerful House of Lorraine, no children from the union. Close to his wife, but had many affairs with both sexes. Nicknamed the “King of Sodom,” he showed up dressed as a woman to some occasions. Wore earrings, and was very given to pomp and extravagance, nearly bankrupting the kingdom. Had fears of anyone physically approaching him, perhaps intuitively knowing he would be assassinated himself. Surrounded himself with handsome young men, known as the mignons, whose haughty behavior alienated his subjects. Wrote love letters in his own blood, and wore little silver ornaments shaped like skulls all over his clothes. Became a Flagellant and insisted his court do likewise. Revoked edicts that granted toleration for the Huguenots, but the Catholic League felt he wasn’t a true defender of their faith and tried to depose him. Involved throughout his reign with contestants for the throne, culminating in the War of Three Henris in 1587, between himself, Henri of Navarre (FDR), and Henri, Duke of Guise (Joschka Fischer). Forced to flee Paris after an insurrection, and when he found he had little support, decided to eliminate Guise. Had his bodyguard cut him down, while his mother died 12 days later. Excommunicated by the pope for eliminating another Guise, the cardinal of Lorraine, then sought help from his brother-in-law, Henri of Navarre, and the 2 decided to lay seige to Paris, but in turn he was stabbed in the stomach while seated on the toilet by a mad Jacobin monk, Jacques Clement (Andrew Cunanan?), who was immediately flung to his death from a window. Died the next day, ending the Valois line. His last words were to his successor, Henri of Navarre, importuning him to change his faith. Inner: Delicate and slightly built. Clever, brave, cultured, good politician. His female side was very much apparent in this male incarnation of power. The duality of his kingdom was reflected in his duality of being. More into the trappings of rule than its substance. Flamboyant lifetime of embodying a decadent and decaying ruling house, and his final exit, through a stomach wound, while purging himself of his waste, exemplified its ultimate loss of power. Assassin figure is someone continually trying to usurp his power. Andronicus III Palaeologus (1297-1341) - Byzantine Basileus. Outer: Father was Byzantine emperor Michael IX Palaeologus (Roald Dahl). Mother was Rita of Armennia, an Armenian princess. Oldest of four children. A dissolute profligate in his youth, drinking, carousing, gambling and running up huge debts with the Genoese, while endless chasing women. In 1318, he was married to a stultifyingly dull German daughter of a duke, Adelaide of Brunswick-Grubenhagen, whom he took no interest in. One short-lived son from the union, which ended with her death in 1324. In 1320, suspecting one of his mistresses to be cheating on him, he lay in ambush for the cad, and wound up having his retainers kill his own brother Manuel, who may or may not have been the guilty party. Lost his father through grief right afterwards, while his reigning grandfather, Andronicus II (Sonny Bono) disowned him, causing him to flee Constantinople for Thrace, precipitating a civil war that would last on and off for the next eight years, before his forces prevailed and he forced the latter to abdicate, after earlier being declared co-emperor. During this period he wed a second time to Anna of Savoy (Sophia Loren), daughter of the count of Savoy. Four children from the union, two daughters and two sons, including his successor, John V Palaeologus (Rajiv Gandhi). Inherited an unstable, near bankrupt empire because of the lack of administrative and martial skills of both his father and grandfather. Despite his previous reputation, he chose an efficient Grand Domestic, John Cantacuzenus (Sanjay Gandhi) to run things at home, while he pursued his dual pleasures of making love and war. Failed in his initial forays in the later, forcing him into territorial concessions to the Bulgarians and a dynastic marriage between his daughter and the latter leader’s son. The Ottoman Turks successfully expunged Byzantine rule from Asia Minor, leaving the empire with only a couple of ports and islands. Able to hold off Serbian advances into Macedonia, while realizing control over Thessaly and Epirus due to succession crises. Reorganized the army, which had been in disarray with little morale due to their continual defeats under his father, and also reformed the judicial system, rooting out deep-seated corruption. In 1341, he married his niece to the son of his Grand Domestic, making the relationship of the two families even closer just before his demise. Exhausted from his efforts, he retired to rest at a monastery and was stricken by a fever, dying four days later. Made no provision for his successor, failing to crown his son John as co-emperor, which would lead to yet another civil war on his death. Inner: Flamboyant and seductive, but also a capable warrior and administrator, staving off the inevitable decline he had inherited. Energetic and conscientious, as well as a man of action, leaving diplomacy and statesmanship to others. Loved hunting, maintaining a retinue of a thousand huntsman, a thousand hounds and a thousand falcons. Bright lights, big city lifetime of surprising everyone, although probably not himself, with his energetic rule, after earlier showing himself to be a dissolute sot, seemingly uncapable of anything beyond the chase, be it around the boudoir or over field and stream.
PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS DESIGNING PRINCESS:
Storyline: The pampered party animal proves herself as apparel heir apparent in the wake of her sibling’s tragic death, wedding her flamboyant esthetic to his in their ongoing union of stylish sensibilities and bon vivance.
Donatella Versace (1955) - Italian designer. Outer: Mother was a successful dressmaker, father ran a methane-supply company, selling appliances, and was often gone traveling. Youngest of 4 children by a decade, and clearly spoiled by everyone. 5’4”, with exaggerated features, which became even more so following plastic surgery later in life. Studied literature in northern Florence after high school, viewing her college years as the high point of her life, and gave her designer brother Gianni advice in his burgeoning career, from her perspective of being at the center of whatever social scene she was involved in. In 1978, she went to work for him in Milan, wearing her brother’s designs on the party circuit. Enamored of bright colors, she dyed her long hair platinum. Began designing in the early 1980s, starting with accessories, then children’s collections. Married an American model, Paul Beck, 2 children from the union, including a daughter, Allegra, who would be a long term sufferer of anorexia, while ultimately holding a 50% share in the Versace Group. The duo later divorced, although her husband would continue working for the company. Always had a heated relationship with her sibling, although there was obviously a great deal of love between the two. In 1990, she became sole designer of one of his secondary lines, Versus, as well as a collaborator with him. Became the first designer to use celebrities on her catwalks, while using her A-list friends to promote her clothing. Devastated by her brother’s murder in 1997, but she was able to recover when his entire enterprise was handed to her, as vice-president as well as chief designer. By the fall of 1998, she had established herself as a world-class designer in her own right, thanks to the celebrity support she had garnered over the years, and was able to work through her grief by working, although fell victim to cocaine addiction. Continued her high profile career through the turn of the century, but at a price, and in 2004, she checked into rehab, while her company suffered a similar disintegration until rebounding and expanding into accessories and home furnishings, achieving a cult status to the family name. Able to stay clean and sober afterwards and the following year, she joined the celebrity rush to reality TV centering around finding an intern for her fashion domain. Also branched into high end hotels, with the luxurious Palazzo Versace in Australia, and the world’s tallest hotel in the United Arab Emirates. Maintains homes in several countries, and has made cameo appearances as herself in several films, while remaining a staple of fashion magazines. Inner: Well-liked, volatile, charitable and highly social. Enjoys being familial with the people who work for her, while continually expanding her various lines. Pick-up-the-mantle lifetime of turning tragedy into triumph, while continuing her longtime liaison with the flamboyant figure of her longtime sibling/mate. Louise Boulanger (Louise Melenot) (1878-1950) - French designer. Outer: Began her career at the age of 13, as an apprentice to a dressmaker, before working for Madeleine Cheruit, one of the first ready-to-wear couturiers. Married Louis Boulanger, and with him opened their own salon, combining both her names as Louseboulanger, so as not to be confused with a fellow designer with a similar name. Noted for her bold colors and heavy fabrics, as well as her ‘pouf evening dresses, which resembled throwbacks to the bustle era. Employed both warm and icy colors, while using figured textiles, rather than embroidered fabrics, giving her creations a distinctive tactile feel. Her clientele was young and chic, with a great desire to be noticed, so that her creations drew equal attention, as emblems of the trendy Parisian set. Because of the worldwide depression, she was forced to close her shop briefly in 1933, at which point she worked for the Callot Sisters, before reopening and relocating again for the rest of the decade. The occupation of Paris by the Germans during WW II put an end to her career, and she retired. Inner: Figure of her time, rather than a lasting influence on the fashion industry, like some of her contemporaries. Needle and thread lifetime of evincing both the tastes and practices she would carry forth in her next go-round, as a far more influential fashionista, through her skillful navigation of her deceased brother’s house and its worldwide clientele into the 21st century. Louise (1553-1601) - French queen. Outer: Father was the Duke of Mercoeur, from the powerful House of Lorraine-Vaudemont. Youngest of 4, with two sisters and a brother. Lost her mother when she was one, and her father remarried producing 6 more half-siblings, which were augmented by his third marriage, adding five children to his expanded brood. Married Henri III (Gianni Versace) in 1575, 2 days after he was crowned, in what would be an extremely close union, even though he surrounded himself with young males, and showed a clear sexual preference for them. Maintained a lively, fashionable court, with her spouse often advising her on what she should wear. Despite pilgrimages and prayers, no issue came forth from her loins, and she was forced to suffer the assassination of her husband in 1589, before fading into the background as dowager queen. Eventually retired to a monastery in Moulins, where she died. Inner: Flamboyant, stylish and full of fun. Royal lifetime of enjoying the pleasures of being the center of attention, before having her beloved mate taken away from her, forcing her to spend her last decade plus to contemplate the vagaries of the fates, and perhaps prepare her for the repeat performance four centuries later.
PATHWAY OF THE RULER AS HIGHLY POLITICAL PRELATE:
Storyline: The calculating cardinal shows his high wire dexterity by shifting stances to accommodate the times, putting ideology second to ambition, and realizing long runs at the center of power for his surety of footing and ability to work without a conventional net.
Francois Mitterand (1916-1996) - French statesman. Outer: From a large, devout, bourgeois Roman Catholic family. 5th of 8 children. His father was a stationmaster, and he adopted the conservative politics of his parents and his region. Studied law and political science in Paris, at the College St. Paul, and later the Univ. of Paris, where he had a brilliant academic career, joining a fascist, ultranationalist student group, the ‘Cross of Fire.’ Enlisted in the infantry at the outbreak of WW II, and in 1940, was wounded and captured by the Germans. Escaped from prison camp in 1941 and joined the the collaborationist Vichy government, through his admiration for its leader, Gen. Henri Petain, where he was a mid-level official. Won the regime’s highest civilian distinction, but also joined the Resistance in 1943, using his job as a cover while covering his bases. In 1944, he married Danielle Gouze, a fellow resistance worker, 2 sons from the union. Began his political career in 1946 by being elected to the National Assembly, then the following year, he began a 12 year stint as cabinet minister in 11 short-lived Fourth Republic governments. Originally a centrist, he gradually moved to the left, and from 1958, he was in opposition to the conservative Charles de Gaulle. Ran against him in 1965 as the only candidate for the Socialist and Communist Parties and forced him into a runoff election, before being defeated. After being elected first secretary of the Socialist Party in 1971, he began a major organizational overhaul, which increased its popular support, while he claimed the left for himself by uniting its various elements, instead of competing with them. Defeated in a second presidential run in 1974, he finally won in 1981, beating the incumbent president, Valery Giscard d’Estaing, with support from the communists, despite having spent the previous 20 years calling the presidential system a “permanent coup d’etat.” Nationalized financial institutions, raised the minimum wage and increased social benefits, while taking a hardline view against the Soviet Union and maintaining friendly relations with the U.S. His policies, however, caused inflation and unemployment, so he was forced to cut back on his social programs, ultimately becoming a champion of free-market liberalism, contra to the Socialist Party’s avowed aims, while leaving economics to others and concentrating on foreign policy, his longtime arena of expertise. Forced to make Jacques Chirac, a conservative, his prime minister, after the right-wing gained a majority in the National Assembly, while he retained responsibility for foreign policy in an unprecedented partnership. Beat Chirac for a 2nd term in 1988. Unhesitatingly joined the U.S. coalition against Iraq in the 1991 Gulf War, and became one of the most passionate proponents of the European Union, cultivating a close personal friendship with German Chancellor Helmut Kohl. More like an avuncular figure during his 2nd term, after an imperious first go-round. However, he bloated the civil service, made high unemployment a permanent problem, and lowered the work week, to ensure economic problems for decades to come. Admitted his Vichy role at the end of his life, and his support of right-wing causes as a youth as well as an illegitimate daughter by his longtime mistress, Anne Pingeot, an art his/storian, in a come clean book written by another while he was dying of prostate cancer. Inner: Distant and arrogant, known as “the Florentine,” for his deviousness and mendacity, but finally, won the approbation of “Uncle,” for his endurance over a near 50 year political career. Romantic and cynical, French to the core and a religious traditional, turning his pious sense of Catholicism into an equally fervent belief in socialism. Extremely ambitious, and a highly skilled politico, he yearned for a gentler, simpler France, and eventually, at the end, earned the love of his people. Great fascination with Egyptian culture. Boasted, “I am the last of the great presidents,” as his final epitaph of office. Upper and underhanded lifetime of following his usual serpentine course through the shoals of political power, and, for once, fessing up at the end in order to ultimately win the approbation for all his deviousness and faults. Charles Talleyrand (Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand) (1754-1838) - French statesman and diplomat. Outer: From a pair of old aristocratic, albeit not wealthy, families. Father was a count. Fell off a chest of drawers when he was 4, dislocating his foot, although may also have been born with a clubfoot, which dictated a clerical career for him, rather than follow the family martial tradition. Studied at the College d’Harcout, and became an assistant to his uncle, the coadjutor to the archbishop of Reims. Entered the seminary of Saint-Sulpice in Paris, and availed himself of its huge library, while taking a mistress. Expelled in 1775, but nevertheless he was made abbot of Saint-Denis without receiving his minor orders. After getting his theological degree from the Sorbonne, he was ordained in 1779, then made vicar general to his uncle. Pleasure-loving, although ambitious, he sought out and received the well-paid post of agent general of the clergy, holding it for 5 years. Fought vigorously for the material rights of the Church, while coming into close contact with the king’s ministers. Became bishop of Autun in 1788, another post he coveted, then served as a deputy to the National Assembly at the outbreak of the French Revolution. Acquired great influence, then reversed all his previous positions, taking on the role of “bishop of the revolution,” reorganizing the French Church on a democratic basis without papal approval. Subsequently excommunicated, while becoming the first bishop to take a loyalty oath to the new constitution. Had already decided to leave the Church, since his maneuvers had limited both his desires for wealth and power within its framework. Resigned in 1791, and was elected administrator of the department of Paris. Worked on negotiations with the British to remain neutral in France’s subsequent foreign wars, then mob violence in Paris made it advisable for him to leave the country. Denounced in the National Assembly, he soon found himself persona non grata in London as well, and went to the U.S. for 2 years to ride out the Revolution, while rebuilding his fortune there through financial speculation. After a clever maneuver, he returned to France in 1796, and re-entered politics. Published a paper asking France to put its colonial interests in Africa, rather than the U.S., then negotiated the tail end of a treaty for Napoleon, taking more than a million francs in bribes in the process. Resigned after several failed policy moves, including a breach with some American envoys. Supported Napoleon’s creation of a Consulate, and rejoined his government as foreign minister, negotiating treaties with Austria and England. Profitably supervised the reallocation of church lands, and aided Napoleon’s plans for diplomatic supremacy in Europe. In 1801, he married his mistress, Catherine Noele Worlee, the ex-wife of an English employee of the British East India Company, although the duo would later divorce in 1815. Earlier he had a son by another mistress, Adelaide de Flahaut, as well as a string of amours throughout his life. Helped Napoleon establish himself as consul-for-life in 1802, then was involved in the abduction of the Duke d’Enghien (Pierre Laval) from neutral territory, after an assassination plot was revealed. After the latter’s execution, he tried to remove the documents detailing his involvement. Appointed grand chamberlain when Napoleon declared himself emperor in 1804, although his influence began to wane by the following year. Resigned in 1807, when he saw the emperor was obsessed with nothing but power. Still acted as a consultant to Napoleon, then worked behind his back in secret talks with the Russian Tsar Alexander I (Mikhail Gorbachev) to oppose him, and conducted a clandestine correspondence with France’s enemies, although had the support of Joseph Fouche (Nikita Khruschev), the minister of police, in his perfidy. Arranged the emperor’s marriage with an Austrian princess after he had divorced Josephine Beauharnais (Estee Lauder), hoping to mute his ambition. Refused to return to the foreign ministry after Napoleon’s disastrous Russian campaign, and when the allies entered Paris in 1814, he put up the Russian tsar in his mansion, and persuaded the Senate to create a provisional government with himself as one of its 5 main members, while declaring Napoleon deposed. Made foreign minister at the Restoration of Louis XVIII (Leon Gaumont) and played a divisive role at the subsequent Congress of Vienna to insure France’s hegemony, although his actions created great problems for his country in the future, beyond his own lifetime. Rode out Napoleon’s 100 day return in Vienna, and was made president of the council on Louis XVIII’s re-instatement, as well as retaining his role as foreign minister, but was forced to resign by reactionary forces. Wrote his memoirs while in retirement, before becoming reinvolved in politics, in his attempt to unseat the reactionary Charles X (Charles Pathe). Helped make Louis-Philippe (Boris Yeltsin) king in 1830, and ended his career as ambassador to London, capping himself by creating an alliance between France, Britain and the Iberian Peninsula, before retiring. Reconciled with the Church at life’s end. Inner: Skeptical, manipulative and a master of political intrigue, the singular figure to serve all of the regimes in the chaotic upheaval of France’s monarchy: revolution, consulate, empire, and the 3 kings that followed. Servant of disguise rather than candor, and civility rather than spontaneity, always carefully measuring his choices and moves, the supreme politician. Super-survivor lifetime of enduring decades of political upheaval with consummate skill and panache. Jules Mazarin (Giulio Mazzarino) (1602-1661) - Neapolitan/French statesman. Outer: Father was a Romanized Sicilian in the household of a member of the powerful Colonna family. Mother was from a noble Tuscany family and related to the Colonnas by marriage. One of 6 children. His upbringing taught him to pursue powerful patrons. Despite family financial difficulties, he was sent to a Jesuit school in Rome, where he proved an excellent student. Handsome, eloquent and charming. Completed his education in Spain, studying law, then obtained a captaincy in the papal army through his patrons, undergoing a mystical religious experience on Christmas night in 1625. Entered the diplomatic service of the Holy See and was made secretary to the papal legate of Milan. In 1630, he was sent to France to negotiate with the minister, Cardinal de Richelieu (Henry Kissinger), and became entranced by him, and decided to become his political acolyte. Heroically galloped between 2 opposing armies of France and Spain about to do battle in Italy, shouting, “Peace, peace,” winning a reputation for bravery, then negotiated a treaty between them. Won the patronage of a nephew of the pope, which gained him the position of nuncio or ambassador to the French court, only to see Richielieu initiate the 30 Years’ War between Spain and France. Recalled to Avignon as a legate, then Rome, but maintained his influence on French politics via correspondence and directed the French faction in the papal court. Granted French naturalization papers in 1639, he received numerous benefices from the French king, Louis XIII (Cecil B. Demille). Returned to Paris in 1640 and left the papal service to enter French service. Became a cardinal in 1641, although he had never been ordained, and succeeded Richielieu as first minister of France, following the deaths of his idol and the French king, serving the regent, Anne of Austria (Gloria Swanson). Grew both rich and powerful, while rewarding relatives back in Italy, although never put family above affairs of state. Helped bring about the 1648 Peace of Westphalia, which ended the religious wars on the continent between Catholic and Protestant, although France and Spain continued to fight. Made an alliance with the German states closest to the French frontier, then another with England, before concentrating on internal affairs and court intrigues. His taxation policies sparked the aristocratic revolt known as the Fronde, causing him to leave court twice and hold onto his position only through his close connection with the regent and the boy-king, Louis XIV (Charles de Gaulle). After the Fronde was suppressed in 1653 and Louis was crowned, he continued the king’s education in affairs of state, while directing the course of the government, strengthening the crown and finally negotiating peace with Spain in 1659 as his last major act. Thought of entering the priesthood just before his death. Inner: Faithful Catholic, strong sense of mission and duty and his own self-importance. Avaricious, although able to put his own fortune at the disposal of the state whenever it needed to be done. Great lover of the arts, as well as of personal power, able to outmaneuver enemies, and always recognized on which side his political bread was buttered. Astute lifetime of being a stranger in a strange land and using his considerable political acumen to make him one of the most memorable statesmen in the his/story of his adopted country. Eugenius IV (Gabriel Condulmer) (1383-1447) French pope. Outer: Nephew of pope Gregory XII. Entered the Augustinian order and became a hermit/monk, rising through the Church hierarchy to become a cardinal through the auspices of his uncle, at the age of 25. Tall and handsome, with a majestic bearing. Succeeded to the papacy in 1431, under the condition that he commit himself to Church reform. Struggled against the Council of Basel, which lasted the first 7 years of his pontificate, and sought through reforms to diminish the power of the papacy, insisting it was the supreme body of the Church. Tried to dissolve it, then compromised his stance, although remained adamantly supportive of papal authority. In addition, he was forced to deal with a revolt of the powerful Colonna family and their supporters, and his health deteriorated in putting it down. Escaped from Rome by boat, disguised as a monk, after a revolt by the Romans, and was forced to crouch under a shield as his vessel was pelted by stones and arrows. Moved to Florence, under the protection of Cosimo de’ Medici (David Geffen), where his Sacred College and Curia soon followed, and for the next 9 years, he ran his papal government from quasi-exile. Freed from Roman pressures, he was far more able to deal with his larger problems, exploiting disunity in the Council, while dispatching a talented papal official and military commander to subdue Rome, which he did. Tensions eased when the eastern Church began negotiating with him with the possibility of ending the schism between east and west, and he used the opportunity to order the divided Council to transfer from Switzerland to Ferrara. Excommunicated the dissidents who refused, while they in turn tried to depose him, only to look ridiculous as they set up the last anti-pope in Church his/story, before they melted away. The French king, Charles VII (Leon Blum), then issued a sanction to give the French church more liberties and the pope less power over them. Returned to Rome in 1443, and received the homage of Europe for his efforts in standing up to the schism. Able to conclude a short-lived union between the eastern and western Churches, after a plague moved the original council to Florence, and he was able to restore papal sovereignty to the Church. Unable, however, to inspire a successful Crusade against the Ottoman Turks, he saw his forces smashed. Died with his prestige intact and his reputation secured as one of the most politically effective of the Medieval popes. Inner: Austere, pious, obstinate and upright. Fearless, resolute, subtle and extremely political. Firm-hand-on-the tiller lifetime of dealing with a host of challenges to his authority from all spheres, and proving himself a masterful captain in dealing with them. Hatto I (c850-913) - Archbishop of Mainz. Outer: From a noble Swabian family. Educated at a monastery in Swabia, he became a Benedictine monk. In 888, he was elected Abbot of Reichenau, and a year later, was given the same post at Ellwangen, from which he exercised considerable political influence in the German states. Thanks to his abilities, the East Frankish king, Arnulf (Alfred von Tirpitz), appointed him Archbishop of Mainz in 891, and he became one of the king’s chief counsellors. Presided over two political-ecclesiastic assemblies over the next several years, while formulating his own desires for a consolidated German kingdom, with a monarch having central authority. Won the enmity of the nobles who wished to have their own territories with their own primal authority over them. Accompanied the king to Italy in 1894 to defend him against charges, and then went a second time the following year, during the Frankish invasions of Italy. After Arnulf’s death in 899, he remained the de facto ruler of the East Frankish kingdom, as regent, while the king’s son, Louis IV (Henry Miller), remained in his minority. When Louis IV died in 911, he oversaw the transference of power to Conrad I, the duke of Franconia, and then served as his chief councilor, for the remaining two years of his life. Subsequently became the victim of chroniclers of his time, who painted him as a cruel, cunning figure, with little real basis in his/storical fact. Inner: Energetic and deeply devoted to the throne, with a genuine love of power and the ability to make his will manifest in perilous times. Kingmaker lifetime of exercising both vision and will in preparation for making his indelible mark on the future story of France, from the perspective of its neighboring state, and the mitred power of the Church.
PATHWAY OF THE SAINT AS COMPULSIVE MARTYR:
Storyline: The obsessive savior loses all sense of proportion in her ongoing desire to take on giant windmills with the lance of her tongue, and winds up being a victim of her own ongoing need for martyred notoriety.
Petra Kelly (1947-1992) - German political radical. Outer: Father was a journalist who abandoned the family when she was 7, and her mother remarried a lieutenant colonel. Grew up in Bavaria, was educated in Germany, then moved to the U.S. with her family, where her stepfather was an officer in the American Army hospital service. Learned English, and studied politics and international relations at the American Univ. in Washington. Served as a volunteer for several liberal politicians and became involved in demonstrations against the Vietnam War and the American nuclear defense policy. After her 10 year old sister died of eye cancer, she founded a group for research into children’s cancer in 1970. Returned to Europe the same year to do research on postwar European political movements at the Europa Institute in Amsterdam, and began working for the EEC in Brussels. Became a campaigner for peace and environmental issues. During the 1970s, she was a member of the German Social Democratic Party, although she left it at the end of the decade in protest against its policies on nuclear defense, health and women. With several friends, she helped found Germany’s Green Party, which she would also later leave. Telegenic, with perfect English, she became a media focus and the feminist face of Germany’s anti-nuclear movement in the 1980s. Thanks to the party’s extraordinary success, she was awarded the Alternative Nobel Prize in 1982, and the following year, she became one of 17 Green members elected to the West German Parliament. Wrote several books and became involved with Gert Bastian, a married NATO general who resigned his post to protest German nuclear policy. The duo met at a Green Party function and he became her manager and fulltime assistant, living totally in her shadow. He also may have used her to expiate his own guilt in Nazi atrocities, having served as a soldier on the Russian front. Eventually alienated from her own party, she became more and more anxious and a virtual agrophobe, unwilling to leave her home without Bastian, who may also have been a spy for East Germany. Shot at point-blank range while lying asleep by Bastian, who then killed himself, in what remains a mystery of motivation and actualization. Inner: Neurotic, shrill, humorless, feisty and tireless. Disorganized, charismatic and driven. Often compared with Joan of Arc in her absolute surety of herself. Tunnel vision lifetime of trying to ground her political consciousness on a secular, rather than a religious foundation, as in lives past in this series, while ultimately embracing someone who represented all the ills of her previous go-round. Simone Weil (1909-1943) - French social philosopher, mystic and activist. Outer: From a prosperous Jewish family. She and her older brother were both prodigies, amusing themselves with their intellectual proclivities. Brought up in Paris, she showed herself precociously aware of social imbalances at an extremely early age. Evinced an empathy for the poor and downtrodden which would never leave her. At 5, she refused sugar because the French soldiers at the front in WW I had none. Extremely well-educated, she was one of the first women admitted to the Ecole Normale Superiere. Although extremely interested in the writings of Karl Marx (Victor Serge), she never joined the Communist Party. Taught at a girls’ school, but was dismissed after demonstrating with strikers in front of the it. Continued teaching at several schools, but also interspersed her duties with periods of doing hard manual labor on farms and at the Renault factory in order to experience firsthand the tribulations of the working-class, while deliberately searching out discomfort. Wrote about it, despairing of any hope for that dehumanizing way of life, and ultimately fell sick with pleurisy, after internalizing her sorrow over the conditions of her social and intellectual lessers. During her teaching career, she was continually dismissed for writing for left-wing journals, picketing and refusing to eat more than people on relief. Served in the Republican forces in the Spanish Civil War as a cook, since she could not bear arms as a pacifist. Abjured her religion, but also saw Catholicism as extremely oppressive, and viewed herself as an existential Christian. During Easter of 1938, she began a series of mystical experiences. Although never baptised, she identified strongly with the weak and powerless outside the Church. Wrote extensively on her religious overviews, as well as her political and moral convictions, which were often naive. Once burst out crying after hearing of a famine in China. Moved to Marseille when the Germans overran Paris early in WW II, and wrote for several journals dedicated to the Resistance. Reluctantly left France in 1942, going first to the U.S. with her parents, then joining the Free French forces in London, where she wrote, The Need for Roots, a look at the reciprocal duties of the individual and the state. Denied permission to parachute into occupied France by the leaders of the Resistance. Died of tuberculosis, refusing to eat more than the rations allowed in occupied France, and then starving herself to death in a quasi-suicide meant to parallel the same direction in which she felt the larger world was heading. Wrote her spiritual autobiography, Waiting For God. Inner: Driven, humorless, unable to separate herself from the woes of the world. Hated to be touched. Passionate, naive, anorexic, and self-centeredly self-effacing. Deeply spiritual, although not religious in a conventional sense, with a strong identification with the martyrdom and lordliness of Jesus Christ. Felt all of Western culture was based on the use of force from Roman times on down. Saw her time on Earth as a slavery, waiting for the liberation of God. Little regard for her body or her sexuality, saw marriage as consented rape. Wounded heart lifetime of taking on the sufferings of the century, and ultimately self-destructing as a sacrificial martyr for the injustices of the world. Jeanne d’Arc (c1412-1431) - French soldier and saint. Outer: Daughter of a peasant plowman. Began to hear voices of various saints as a child, which told her to preserve her virginity. Her father thought she was a witch and wanted to drown her, and when she left home, she never saw her parents again. At the age of 16, she felt compelled to help the dauphin, later Charles VII (Leon Blum), to regain his throne during the 100 Years’ War with England. Dressed in male attire, and traveling with 6 companions, she convinced him of her intentions, following an initial rejection. After picking him out of a crowd, then being examined by theologians, she was given troops by Charles, and provided the moral and military impetus for victory over the English at Orleans in 1429. Continually made her presence felt on the battlefield, fearlessly placing herself in danger, while serving as a rallying symbol and standard-bearer. Stood with Charles at his subsequent coronation, although he vacillated beforehand and she had to convince him of the importance of his crowning. Following an unsuccessful seige of Paris, she was captured on her next campaign in 1430, after being unhorsed and giving herself up. Sold to the English, while Charles made no effort to secure her safety. Given over to a French ecclesiastic court who sympathized with the English, she was tried for heresy, blasphemous presumption and witchcraft. Although she resisted her inquisitors, she recanted at the end of trial when she was sentenced to be handed over to a secular court. After being condemned to life imprisonment, she recanted her recantment and was burned at the stake as a relapsed heretic. Charles rehabilitated her with an annulment of the trial’s proceedings and she was canonized almost 500 years later. Inner: Extremely pious, purposefully firm, felt more comfortable in men’s clothing than women’s. Channel for her own martial spirituality and sense of divine destiny. Integrated warrior sensibility in a female body, while never wavering from her sense of destiny and mission, save for a few days near life’s end. Confusion remains around her persona and motivation, although she seems to have been a genuine heroine. Legendary lifetime of pursuing her inner vision and integrating her own maleness and femaleness around a saintly inspired cause. St. Genevieve (c422-c509) - French saint. Outer: Parents were peasants according to popular tradition, but were probably wealthy and respected people. Aspired to the religious life from the age of 7, she became a nun around the age of 15, after earlier having been swayed by St. Germain of Auxerre. On the death of her parents, she moved to Paris to live with her godmother, where she lived a chaste, charitable life, replete with mortifications of the flesh. Subsequently had visions and made predictions, which were unpopular, putting her life in danger, while she steadfastly maintained her habits of prayer and austerity. Saw the approach of Attila the Hun and his army, which came about in 451, which caused the terrified town people to turn to her. She, in turn, asked them to beg God, through fasting, and prayer to deter him, and he changed the course of his march, which established her as the savior of Paris. When the Frankish ruler Childeric besieged Paris in order to retain his kingdom, she went by boat up the Seine collecting food, and her voyage was accompanied by numerous small miracles, so that she even impressed Childeric, who gave her permission to build a chapel over the tomb of St. Denis, the patron saint of France. Helped persuade Clovis (Lucien Bonaparte), in her last decade, to convert to Christianity. He, in turn, venerated her and released prisoners on her request. Enshrined after her death in a church that Clovis had built for her, she subsequently served as a rallying point for Parisians in danger. Her cult later spread in the Middle Ages to southwest Germany. During the French Revolution her body was dug up and burned, although her relics were later enshrined. Inner: Visionary, austere, fearless. Channeling lifetime of serving as a central inaugural figure in the subsequent religious evolution of France, a role she would continue to play off of. Judith (fl. 6th cent. B.Z.) - Judaean heroine. Outer: A woman of great beauty and resource, she was a wealthy widow at the beginning of her biblical chronicle. Lived a simple spiritual life, spending much time both fasting and praying. Largely ignored by her city’s power structure, when it was under attack from Assyria, she prostrated herself on the ground, asking her sense of the divine to give her the strength to break the power of the enemy. In an unusual afterthought, she also asked that she be made into a good believable liar. Afterwards, she perfumed herself, and placed a tiara on her head, before donning one of the extravagant robes she used to wear for her husband. Made herself resplendent with jewelry, then she and her maid put together an assortment of ritually purified food, before slipping out of the city’s gates. Told an Assyrian patrol that she had some secret information for their general Holofernes that would allow him to conquer Bethulia without losing one soldier. The patrol was overwhelmed by her and brought her to their general, who was equally smitten, and provided a tent for her, while instructing his soldiers not to touch her. She stayed for three days in the camp, remaining in her tent during the day, and eating her own food in the evening. On the fourth day, Holofernes invited her to an informal dinner in his own tent, feeling a great need to seduce her. Appeared at his tent dressed in her finery, while her maid laid her sheepskin bedding on its floor. When she entered, Holofernes offered her wine, but she only drank that which her maid had brought, which was probably watered down. The general became intoxicated, and stretched out on his own bed, completely drunk. Took his sword, which was hanging from a sheath on his bedpost, raised it, and in two strokes, beheaded him. Rolled his body off the bed and pulled down his bed curtains, then picked up the head and handed it to her maid, who put it in a food bag. The duo were then able to leave the camp, per the general’s earlier orders, and returned to Bethuliah, where she was let in. After displaying her trophy, she had the city hang the general’s head in full view on the battlements. When the Assyrians discovered the headless body of their general, they panicked and fled, leaving them easy prey for the Judaeans, who chased after and easily dispatched them. She became a national heroine and a figure for the ages, heaped with plaudits and honors, while her maid was set free. Lived on to great age, and never remarried, continuing her life of probity and piety as a storied figure who saved her people from certain annihilation, through her adroit understanding of the weaknesses of powerful men. Inner: Pious, saintly, upright, simple and direct. Legendary lifetime of using her considerable physical presence and psychological acumen to help rout a powerful enemy through the simple expedient of faux seduction and real intoxication.